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Transfert des éléments traces métalliques vers les végétaux : mécanismes et évaluations des risques dans des environnements exposés à des activités anthropiques

Abstract : Metal trace element (HME) -free residues from industrial activities represent a potential risk of environmental pollution. These tailings dumps require a stabilization of the ETMs to limit their dispersion by air, soil, and streams, and ultimately their transport to initially uncontaminated areas. This stabilization can be achieved by adequate plant cover. This thesis work focused on 3 experimental sites, which have as common point to be contaminated sediment storage areas or industrial effluents loaded with ETMs. The general objective of this thesis work was to study the transfer and storage modes of ETMs to the aerial parts of plants grown on soils from these experimental sites. The first objective concerned a discharge of effluents (Inovyn), resulting from the electrolytic activity of the Solvay (Tavaux) plant and enriched in Hg. The Hg, because of its low boiling point, is easily transferred from the sediments to the atmosphere in the form of volatile compounds. Thus, the vegetal cover of this lagoon is exposed by its aerial biomass to the volatile compounds of Hg, but also by the rhizosphere to the Hg compounds present in the substrate. In this work, several plant species of the Salicaceae family (poplar) and Solanaceae (pepper, tomato, aubergine, and tobacco) were exposed to Hg in pot experiments, with simple exposure to a Hg-enriched atmosphere. , or double exposure to Hg-enriched soil and atmosphere. In all cases, transfer of Hg into the leaves occurs only by air, and accumulation increases significantly with leaf age. We also found that the Hg content of the Solanaceae fruit was about 100 times lower than that of the leaves, thus limiting the risk of exposure to Hg through their consumption. We have also shown that a small proportion (7%) of the Hg is in the form of methylHg in poplar leaves, and that 16 to 26% of the Hg accumulated in pepper or poplar leaves were bound to soluble proteins. The second objective concerns the Thann (Cristal) and Fresnes sur Escaut (VNF) sites, for which we have studied the transfer of ETMs to vegetable species, in order to mimic the impact of these contaminants on vegetable garden crops. Poplar has also been used as a reference species. The amounts of fresh mass of the edible parts to be ingested to reach the daily dose were calculated for each MTE. Only Cd (Fresnes) and Cr (Thann) presented a potential risk, since they accumulate in the consumable parts of these plants at high levels. It should be noted, however, that these experiments were conducted in scenarios where exposure conditions were maximized. The transfer of ETMs (including Cd and Zn) to poplar has confirmed previous studies, highlighting the importance of appropriate management of the biomass produced at such sites. From an ecological point of view, the work of this thesis confirms the importance and the necessity of the revegetation of the sites contaminated by ETMs in order to limit the dispersion of the dust, and consequently the ETMs around. From a health point of view, the work emphasizes the importance of estimating the specific risk related to the ingestion of vegetable species of interest regularly grown by the inhabitants around the sites potentially emitting ETMs, generating a link between species and accumulated ETMs. This work therefore provides a number of elements for understanding the fate of ETMs and in particular the Hg in the soil / plant system and the risks associated with the ingestion of the edible parts of potentially contaminated cultivated plants.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01787667, version 1

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Mohamad Assad. Transfert des éléments traces métalliques vers les végétaux : mécanismes et évaluations des risques dans des environnements exposés à des activités anthropiques. Sciences agricoles. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017UBFCD006⟩. ⟨tel-01787667⟩

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