Injections de fluide dans une zone de faille (LSBB, Rustrel) : sismicité induite et déformation asismique

Abstract : Better understanding how fluids pressure produce seismic or aseismic motion along faults is an important goal for seismic hazard assessment and for geological reservoir monitoring. Seismicity rate increase in fluid injection areas where some events may reach magnitude greater than 5. How fluids may induce and control seismicity? High-pressure fluid injections were performed in limestones, in the damaged zone of an inactive fault at 280m depth. These in-situ experiments allow to study the seismological and hydromechanical responses (recorded by 31 sensors) of different fracture types to a fluid perturbation. Only a few tests have generated seismicity even if ruptures are observed with a displacement sensor at the injection point. 215 earthquakes were detected and are characterized by high frequency content (0.6 to 3 KHz) and weak magnitude (-4.1 to -3.1). The relative and absolute locations (1.5m accuracy) indicate a lack of events in the vicinity of injection borehole. Comparing cumulated seismic moment with an equivalent deformation moment, more than 96% of the deformation is aseismic. Two distinct seismic behavior show that at least one part of the seismicity might be controlled by a stress transfer in the medium. Moreover, the joined interpretation geological, mechanical, hydrogeological and seismic data allow to build bloc motions at the injection point. Finally, our experiments showed that fluid injection mainly drives aseismic motion and the seismicity might be only an indirect effect related to stress transferred from the volume deformed by fluid pressurization.
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Laure Duboeuf. Injections de fluide dans une zone de faille (LSBB, Rustrel) : sismicité induite et déformation asismique. Sciences de la Terre. Université Côte d'Azur, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR4002⟩. ⟨tel-01787649⟩

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