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Analyse épidémiologique des arrêts cardiaques traumatiques,quelles implications pour les recommandations internationales?

Abstract : Traumatic cardiac arrests (TCA) prognosis is known to be dismal and resuscitation attempts “futility” is often discussed. Hence, resuscitation international guidelines regarding their care are frequently debated. This PhD work objective is to provide large scale epidemiological data on these patients, on their care and survival in order to bring matter for orientating the forthcoming guidelines.Material and Methods: National multicentre study based on the French national cardiac arrest registry (RéAC) data. All TCA which occurred between the 01/07/2011 and 01/01/2016 for which RéAC data were available were included. The first step consisted in a description of the TCA population. The second one consisted in a comparison of TCA to medical CA (MCA) before and after propensity score matching.Results: On the selected time span, 3303 TCA victims were included. Three quarter of them were males and the median age was 45. TCA occurred out of home in 75,9% cases. Bystander(s)’ presence was recorded in 54,3% cases. Yet, only 31,8% provided a basic life support. At mobile medical teams’ arrival, 86,9% of patients were in asystole, 5,9% had a pulseless electrical activity, 1,4% had a shockable rhythm and 5,8% had an effective activity. An advanced life support was attempted in 71,3% of patients and 15,6% sustained a return of spontaneous activity. At hospital admission, 14,5% were alive. At Day 30, 1,5% (n=51) survived among which 67,4% had a good neurological outcome. Besides, 48 patients (1,4%) gave their organs, in non-beating heart framework (n=8) or in encephalic death organ retrieval framework (n=40).On the same period, 42628 MCA were included. This population was significantly older, more feminine and most of them occurred at home. Patients were more often cared by bystanders, firemen and medical teams. At hospital admission and at 30 days, their survival chances were higher than in TCA population (TCA OR respectively 0,629[0,570;0,695]; p<10-3 and 0,253[0,191;0,335]; p<10-3). After adjustment, TCA survival odds were even lower than in MCA: 2,4 times lower at admission (OR: 0,416[0,359;0,482]; p<10-3) and 6 times lower at day 30 (OR: 0,168[0,117;0,241]; p<10-3). Included TCA characteristics are coherent with a part of the bibliographical corpus, mostly European. We observe weaknesses in the TCA chain of survival which were also described elsewhere. Survival rate are indeed low, sometimes even regarding some other studies. However, we record survivors regardless of initial recorded rhythm of lesional characteristics. This fact particularly questions American literature and guidelines. However, in a quasi-experimental context, TCA odds of survival were significantly lower than MCA, contradicting the scarce literature dealing with this issue. Therefore, European guidelines that raised these shortcomings can henceforth benefit from this new contributionConclusion: TCA have significantly lower survival rates than MCA all things being equal. Still, prehospital life support initiation does not seem futile in these patients. These results enable us to position ourselves more in favour of European guidelines than in American ones. Yet, this new information could help to refine them. Finally, we can also keep in mind that organ donation is not anecdotical in this young population.
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Joséphine Escutnaire. Analyse épidémiologique des arrêts cardiaques traumatiques,quelles implications pour les recommandations internationales?. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S026⟩. ⟨tel-01787158⟩

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