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Modélisation de l'influence des techniques de présoutènement sur les tassements provoqués lors du creusement des tunnels peu profonds

Abstract : This thesis focuses on the use of pre-reinforcements to reduce the settlements, namely the reinforcement of the tunnel face by bolts, or the installation of a pipe-roof umbrella placed above the face. It seeks to provide tools to evaluate the influence of the construction techniques on the settlements by means of finite element simulations. A special attention is paid to the consequences of the choices of simulation on the numerical results obtained.Chapter 1 presents a comparison between different approaches of simulation for the excavation of a shallow tunnel in plane strain. The results show that the alternative approaches do not give better results, in terms of width of the predicted settlement trough, than the classical approach based on excavation forces. On the other hand, the implementation of the pre-reinforcements imposes to carry out three-dimensional simulations. In this context, ones discusses, in chapter 2, the influence of the geometry of the tunnel face of a tunnel on his stability: we compare the case of a vertical tunnel face and with an inclined or curved tunnel face.Chapter 3 focuses on the techniques that can be used to take into account in the numerical simulations the reinforcement of the tunnel face by bolting. We have compared different approaches, and showed that models that take into account in more detail the soil-bolt interaction give better results for the simulation of centrifuge tests.In Chapter 4, we discuss the influence of the bolts on the settlements. We have discussed the utility of taking into account in the simulation some aspect of the construction process, such as the renewal of the bolts. Also, we have discussed the influence of the distance between the tunnel face and the invert.Chapter 5 studies the influence of the pipe umbrella on the settlements. We have established a model that takes into account the conical geometry of the pipe umbrella and the lining, and the cycle of renewal of the pipes. In the last place, we have proposed an original modelling of the technique of aiming at reducing the settlements by means of injections carried out from the pipes, called “active pre-reinforcement”.The results provide some elements for the design of the pre-reinforcement elements, and show for example that there exists a threshold value above which it is not useful to increase the number of bolts or of pipes. On the other hand, they show that some choices of simulation have little influence on the computed settlements, which justifies some assumptions that can be useful to reduce the complexity of three dimensional numerical models.The thesis has been funded by the project FUI Newtun (under the coordination of Solétanche-Bachy)
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Mawudo Eirel Cédric Hounyevou Klotoe. Modélisation de l'influence des techniques de présoutènement sur les tassements provoqués lors du creusement des tunnels peu profonds. Génie civil. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1107⟩. ⟨tel-01787114⟩

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