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Implication des cellules Natural Killer dans la physiopathologie des infections chroniques VIH et VHC : application à des stratégies thérapeutiques

Abstract : Human Immunodeficiency and Hepatitis C (HIV and HCV) chronic infections are at the origin of pandemics. Despite advance drug treatments, their relationship with the immune system is not resolved and is still required to establish new therapeutic strategies. Natural Killer (NK) cells are major antiviral effectors of the immune system and are important for innate and adaptive immune processes. They mediate cytotoxicity and immunoregulation via various activator and inhibitor receptors that are triggered upon interaction with their cognate ligands. Among all receptors, I particularly took an interest in Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors NKp30 and NKp44. Interestingly, the lab previously identified a conserved HIV-1 gp41 épitope that induce expression of NKp44 ligand on CD4+ T cells making them susceptible to lyses by NK-NKp44+ cells. After various studies, the lab established a vaccine strategy based on a peptide from the conserved gp41 épitope that induced in mice Neutralizing Antibodies (Nab W614A-3S) against HIV-1 infection. Whereas HIV-2 infection could be considered as a HIV control infection unique model, data on NK cells are very limited. We found a down-modulation of NKp30 receptor and an increased of its ligands that lead to functional impairments of NK cells and could represent a new viral persistence mechanism. Then, during the HCV chronic infection we found a high proportion of intrahepatic NK cells expressing NKp44 that correlates with fibrosis and viral load. Furthermore we identified a conserved épitope of HCV core protein that induced NKp44 ligand on hepatic cell lines. These data suggest that destruction of hepatocyte might occur by a similar mechanism observed during HIV-1 infection. Finally, a study on HIV-1 controllers patients allow us to identify the presence of Nab W614A-3S that correlates with viral control and the preservation of functional CD4+ T cells. These data confirm the potency of this Nab and their induction by vaccination has been also confirmed in rabbit and macaques. Thus, these studies highlight new data regarding relationship between NK cells and HIV or HCV that could represent new therapeutic approaches. These studies especially confirm the potency of Nab W614A-3S to implement a vaccine against HIV-1.
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Submitted on : Monday, May 7, 2018 - 10:19:06 AM
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Olivier Lucar. Implication des cellules Natural Killer dans la physiopathologie des infections chroniques VIH et VHC : application à des stratégies thérapeutiques. Immunologie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066471⟩. ⟨tel-01786959⟩

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