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Biologie et écologie chimique de la pyrale du café Prophantis smaragdina (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) pour la mise au point d’une méthode de biocontrôle

Abstract : The Coffee berry moth, Prophantis smaragdina (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Spilomelinae) is an important pest of coffee mainly recorded in sub-Saharan Africa. In Reunion Island, P. smaragdina is the only insect pest of coffee. P. smaragdina larvae, by eating coffee cherry albumen, cause major yield losses in ‘Bourbon Pointu’ (BP) production, which is a high value-added and internationally known coffee. Governmental ECOPHYTO plan, added to environmental concerns, constrain coffee farmers to reduce insecticide spraying which is, until now, the only efficient control method of P. smaragdina. This thesis was undertaken to improve our knowledge of the bio-ecology and chemical ecology of P. smaragdina to develop an efficient and economically sustainable biocontrol method against this insect. Our bio-ecology study showed that P. smaragdina population was the most abundant at the beginning of BP fructification period i.e in January. A positive correlation between temperature and P. smaragdina population density was showed. Four parasitoids of P. smaragdina in Reunion were identified. Among them, Pristomerus rivier (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a potential candidate for P. smaragdina biocontrol. Mating behaviour observations showed that, as most of moths, the female emits a sexual pheromone to attract males for mating. Four compounds suspected to compose the female pheromone identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). Electroantennography (EAG) test on male showed that the major identified compound induced a response of male antennae, it could be the major compound of P. smaragdina female pheromone. Field trapping tests with identified compounds, until now, did not yield any captures, probably because of a lack of minor pheromone components or because of erroneous compounds ratios used in traps. A study of P. smaragdina courtship behaviour suggested that the male of P. smaragdina emits pheromone. Five aromatic compounds were identified in male hair pencil volatiles by GC/MS. EAG tests of those compounds on male and female antennae suggest that creosol could play a role on male and female behaviour.
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Submitted on : Friday, May 4, 2018 - 6:40:06 PM
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Oriane Lavogez. Biologie et écologie chimique de la pyrale du café Prophantis smaragdina (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) pour la mise au point d’une méthode de biocontrôle. Sciences agricoles. Université de la Réunion, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LARE0034⟩. ⟨tel-01786009⟩



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