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Structured anisotropic sparsity priors for non-parametric function estimation

Younes Farouj 1, 2
2 Imagerie Ultrasonore
CREATIS - Centre de Recherche en Acquisition et Traitement de l'Image pour la Santé
Abstract : The problem of estimating a multivariate function from corrupted observations arises throughout many areas of engineering. For instance, in the particular field of medical signal and image processing, this task has attracted special attention and even triggered new concepts and notions that have found applications in many other fields. This interest is mainly due to the fact that the medical data analysis pipeline is often carried out in challenging conditions, since one has to deal with noise, low contrast and undesirable transformations operated by acquisition systems. On the other hand, the concept of sparsity had a tremendous impact on data reconstruction and restoration in the last two decades. Sparsity stipulates that some signals and images have representations involving only a few non-zero coefficients. The present PhD dissertation introduces new constructions of sparsity priors for wavelets and total variation. These construction harness notions of generalized anisotropy that enables grouping variables into sub-sets having similar behaviour; this behaviour can be related to the regularity of the unknown function, the physical meaning of the variables or the observation model. We use these constructions for non-parametric estimation of multivariate functions. In the case of wavelet thresholding, we show the optimality of the procedure over usual functional spaces before presenting some applications on denoising of image sequence, spectral and hyperspectral data, incompressible flows and ultrasound images. Afterwards, we study the problem of retrieving activity patterns from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data without incorporating priors on the timing, durations and atlas-based spatial structure of the activation. We model this challenge as a spatio-temporal deconvolution problem. We propose the corresponding variational formulation and we adapt the generalized forward-backward splitting algorithm to solve it.
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Younes Farouj. Structured anisotropic sparsity priors for non-parametric function estimation. Signal and Image processing. Université de Lyon, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSEI123⟩. ⟨tel-01784878⟩

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