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Study of the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a structured phospholipid containing DHA on physiological and pathological conditions of neurogenesis in vitro

Abstract : Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). It is specifically enriched in the brain and the retina and it is required for visual acuity, proper brain development and cerebral functions. While DHA deficiency in the brain was shown to be linked to the emergence of cerebral diseases (i.e. Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease), studies showed that a dietary intake of omega-3 PUFA could prevent or attenuate neurologic disturbances linked with ageing or neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, it is primary to deliver DHA efficiently to the brain. Targeting the brain with DHA might offer great promise in developing new therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases. The French host laboratory previously synthesized a stabilized form of lysophosphatidylcholine-DHA, which is main vector of DHA transportation to the brain, of structure 1-acetyl,2-docoshexaenoyl-glycerophosphocholine, patented and named AceDoPC®. Injection of AceDoPC or DHA after experimental ischemic stroke showed that both molecules also had neuroprotective effects. These potential neuroprotective effects are expected to be due, in part, to DHA conversion into oxygenated metabolites. This study aims to investigate the beneficial effects of DHA and its derived metabolites either unesterified or esterified within structured phospholipids on a model of neurogenesis in vitro under physiological or pathological conditions. The first objective of this work was then to synthesize the DHA-containing structured phospholipid AceDoPC®, DHA oxygenated derivative protectin DX (PDX) and a novel structured phospholipid of protectin: 1-acetyl,2-protectinDX-glycerophosphocholine (AceDoxyPC). The second objective was to investigate the effects of DHA, AceDoPC and PDX on neurogenesis using an in vitro model of neurogenesis, namely cultures of neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs) derived from the adult mouse brain under physiological or pathological conditions (ischemic conditions). Following this, the third objective of this work was to identify the mechanisms involved in such response to stress induced under pathological conditions. Synthesis of the novel structured phospholipid AceDoxyPC was successfully performed by double enzymatic lipoxygenation of AceDoPC and identification of the product was possible using advanced techniques of liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (/ESI)/mass spectrometry (/MS). Future studies on this potential neuroprotective molecule transporter are to be investigated in the near future. Neurogenesis study of cell cultures with AceDoPC showed enhanced neurogenesis compared to addition of unesterified DHA or vehicle control, especially under pathological conditions. Preliminary studies of the potential mechanisms involved in neuroprotection hinted that AceDoPC neuroprotective and regenerative effects might be due in part to its anti-oxidative effects.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 2, 2018 - 6:32:06 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01783946, version 1

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Amanda Lo Van. Study of the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a structured phospholipid containing DHA on physiological and pathological conditions of neurogenesis in vitro. Biomolecules [q-bio.BM]. Université de Lyon; Tōhoku Daigaku. Daigakuin. Rigaku Kenkyūka. Sūgaku Senkō (Sendai, Nihon), 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSEI005⟩. ⟨tel-01783946⟩

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