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Changements socio-environnementaux et évolution des pratiques agropastorales en Afrique sahélienne : étude comparée entre le Ferlo (Sénégal), le Gourma (Mali) et le Fakara (Niger).

Abstract : In a biophysical context characterized by important socioenvironmental changes, the main objective of this PhD is to understand how much agropastoral practices modulatein space and time the vulnerability and adaptability of agroecosystems and sahelians agropastoral societies. To reach this target, this question has been applied at macro-regional scale, relying on three micro-regional study areas: Ferlo (Senegal); Gourma (Mali) and Fakara (Niger) in which perceptions and representations of societies have been studied in a sample of villages and camps. The method developed in this PhD has two components: 1) remote sensing mapping based on satellite image processing, and 2) geo-textual analyses based on lexicometry from semi-structured interviews. The remote sensing mapping allowed to diagnose micro-regional and local scales on land cover change since the 70s until 2010. The diagnosis, based on a multiscale approach, shows intra and inter regional contrasts in the evolution of soil cover by vegetation that invite to nuance observations indicating a greening of Sahel. The articulation of remote sensing with field investigations helped to understand, first the evolution of plant resources, then to consider the variety of responses from the Sahel rural societies to the 70’s and 80’s climate crisis, and to the recent socio-economic changes experienced by sahelian countries. Through lexicometry, geo-textual analysis based on semi-structured interviews allowed to approach the livestock farmer’s perception about the vulnerability and resilience of natural resources. Thanks to the expressed perceptions, the adaptive practices were identified in their variety. It enabled to show the sociospatial reconfigurations in the trajectories of agricultural and pastoral activities that partly explain the contrasts within and between regions observed in Ferlo, Gourma and Fakara.
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Oumar Marega. Changements socio-environnementaux et évolution des pratiques agropastorales en Afrique sahélienne : étude comparée entre le Ferlo (Sénégal), le Gourma (Mali) et le Fakara (Niger).. Géographie. Université paris Diderot-Paris 7; UMR 8586 PRODIG-CNRS, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01783159⟩

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