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Emergences virales en Afrique de l’ouest, dynamique et modélisation, l’exemple des arboviroses émergentes et ré-émergentes dans l'écosystème de Kédougou, Sénégal

Abstract : Located in southeastern Senegal, the Kedougou region is considered as an endemic zone for arboviruses with periodic amplifications every 4 to 6 years, as foreseen for the dynamic of the infection by the yellow fever virus (YFV). However, few data are available on the human specific circulation concern for arboviruses in humans in the region. In addition, the Kedougou region has been marked since the early 2000’s by a considerable socio-economic and demographic development that is to be addressed for changing the spreading of arboviruses with human concern in the area. Our research aimed to assess the dynamic of the circulation of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses in the ecosystem of Kedougou, southeastern Senegal, located close to the border of Mali and Guinea. Hence, we have set up a multidisciplinary (epidemiological, entomological and virological) sentinel surveillance system, carried out a CHIKV seroprevalence study and finally carried out modeling studies in to identify environmental determinants related to the emergence of arboviruses in the region. This system has detected an amplification of CHIKV and YFV sylvatic cycle respectively in 2009 and 2011 associated with a human circulation of these viruses with 20 identified cases of Chikungunya in 2009 and 13 confirmed and 10 probable cases of yellow fever in 2011. Concurrently, adaptation to the domestic context of the Aedes aegypti mosquito competent vector, uncontrolled urbanization, massive migration of populations as well as the movement of livestock have been found as potential factors contributing to the emergence and spreading of arboviruses. This multidisciplinary observatory model combined with mathematical modeling tools, geographic information system and the development of molecular epidemiology and genomics should be extended to other West African countries to strengthen the arboviruses surveillance and anticipate the emergence of epidemics through the implementation of prevention and effective control strategies.
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Abdourahmane Sow. Emergences virales en Afrique de l’ouest, dynamique et modélisation, l’exemple des arboviroses émergentes et ré-émergentes dans l'écosystème de Kédougou, Sénégal. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0949⟩. ⟨tel-01782408⟩

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