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Nouveaux procédés de microspectroscopie Raman cohérent à bande ultralarge

Abstract : The spectroscopy technique based on spontanée Raman Stokes scattering is a standard process used in many fields spanning from thermodynamic and medicine, to materials sciences. An inelastic energy exchange permits to determinate the frequency of the molecular vibrations in an object. One can identify the molecules and thus, can characterize the object of study in a label-free way. Nevertheless, this method is afflicted with faults. Beside the presence of fluorecence that can drown the Raman answer, the main drawback is the long exposition time required. In the case of biological sample, this can prohibit the use of spontaneous Raman scattering for microspectroscopy measures: the spectral mapping of microscopic objects. To avoid this problem, new techniques have been developed. It is the case of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. Due to its coherence and its directivity, the anti-Stokes signal has an intensity 105 to 106 times greater than the spontaneous Raman scattering one. The exposition time is then reduced to a tolerable level for biological objects during microspectroscopy measures. Moreover, the anti-Stokes characteristic of the signal prevents the fluorescence contribution. However, a major fault still limits the use of this technique: the nonresonant background. This phenomenon can diminish, even overwhelm the resonant contribution carrying the information. This thesis permitted the development of CARS approaches that allow the reduction of the nonresonant background. To do so, a multiplex CARS (M-CARS) spectroscopy apparatus in a forward configuration has been built. Its abilities are illustrated with spectral measures of mineral, vegetal and biological samples. Based on this system, it has been established an innovative method that can discriminate the resonant signal from the nonresonant one thanks to a static electric field. It has been also been demonstrated the development of a process that has allowed the first M-CARS microspectroscopy measure of a biological sample in a contrapropagative configuration. This setup limits the collect of the signal to the object of study, avoiding the acquisition of the resonant and resonant signals coming from the solvent, responsible for the major part of non resonant background during a CARS measure in a forward configuration.
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Erwan Capitaine. Nouveaux procédés de microspectroscopie Raman cohérent à bande ultralarge. Optique [physics.optics]. Université de Limoges, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIMO0114⟩. ⟨tel-01781566⟩

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