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Analyse des variations du nombre de copies d'ADN dans une cohorte d'hommes infertiles et génération de modèles génétiques d’étude de la méiose à partir de cellules iPS de patients infertiles

Abstract : Infertility represents a major public health problem and concerns 10 to 15% of couples in the general population. A male factor is responsible for the infertility of the couple in about half of all cases. In approximately 30% of them, the etiology remains unexplained.The first working axis concerned the molecular study of a cohort of infertile patients (nonobstructiveazoospermia/ cryptozoospermia and disorder of the sex development or DSD) for whom analyses of standard karyotype and/or microdeletions of AZF regions were not able to explain the phenotype. The impact of copy number variations of DNA (CNVs) detected by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH-array) is poorly documented. A custom design 400K micoarray, genome-wide and enriched on a wide panel of 445 genes linked with infertility and DSD has been achieved. This array allowed the identification of 171 CNVs of interest.These results underline the potential of this design for diagnosis of male infertility. The second objective of this work was the in vitro modelisation of male infertility in a context of genetic abnormality. For that purpose, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were generated from erythroblasts by means of not integrative Sendaï virus, in two patients carrying genetic abnormalities (complex chromosomal rearrangement and 46,XX-SRY negative karyotype associated with AMH gene mutation). Secondly, functionality of hiPSCs generated was tested by germ cells in vitro differentiation. Primordial germ cell (PGC) stage was successfully obtained. Cells expressed key PGC markers such as SOX17. The perspectives of this work will be to continuethe germinal differentiation towards more mature stages and so to be able studying the meiotic process in a context of genetic abnormality.
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Submitted on : Sunday, April 29, 2018 - 1:01:56 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:00:34 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01781045, version 1

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Aurélie Mouka. Analyse des variations du nombre de copies d'ADN dans une cohorte d'hommes infertiles et génération de modèles génétiques d’étude de la méiose à partir de cellules iPS de patients infertiles. Biologie de la reproduction. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS300⟩. ⟨tel-01781045⟩

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