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Réactions autocatalytiques hétérogènes : vers le dimensionnement des réacteurs industriels de dissolution du dioxyde d’uranium

Abstract : Recycling of nuclear fuel is based on liquid – liquid extraction. The dissolution of uranium dioxide in nitric medium is hence a key step at the head - end of the entire process. This particular dissolution is triphasic and autocatalytic, which means that numerous phenomena must be taken into account. A complete understanding of these phenomena, at macroscopic and microscopic scale, is necessary in order to model the solid disappearance rate in dissolvers. The kinetical parameters of the reaction were determined for both the catalyzed and non-catalyzed reactions. The kinetic study was realized thanks to a single particle approach. The reaction rates were measured by optical microscopy. This analytical technic enables to limit the catalyst accumulation at the solid - liquid interface. Moreover, nitrous oxides are products of the uranium dioxide dissolution. Evidence of a volumic reaction between these gases and the catalyst were found, and the kinetics of this reaction was estimated from the experimental results. Gas – liquid exchanges were shown to have an important impact on the catalyst concentration in the reactor. A model was realized thanks to the software Matlab to simulate these different phenomena. It was shown to be in good agreement with experimental results, at the microscopic and macroscopic scale. Dimensionless numbers were highlighted to describe the impact of each phenomenon on the solid disappearance, including the influence of the geometry and hydrodynamics of the reactor. Finally, ways of process optimization for autocatalytic reactions were determined thanks to the model. For instance, gas – liquid and solid – liquid exchanges were shown to be an interesting lever to fix the catalyst concentration in the reactor and at the solid surface
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Florence Charlier. Réactions autocatalytiques hétérogènes : vers le dimensionnement des réacteurs industriels de dissolution du dioxyde d’uranium. Génie des procédés. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0174⟩. ⟨tel-01778045⟩

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