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Generalization bounds for random samples in Hilbert spaces

Abstract : This thesis focuses on obtaining generalization bounds for random samples in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. The approach consists in first obtaining non-asymptotic dimension-free bounds in finite-dimensional spaces using some PAC-Bayesian inequalities related to Gaussian perturbations and then in generalizing the results in a separable Hilbert space. We first investigate the question of estimating the Gram operator by a robust estimator from an i. i. d. sample and we present uniform bounds that hold under weak moment assumptions. These results allow us to qualify principal component analysis independently of the dimension of the ambient space and to propose stable versions of it. In the last part of the thesis we present a new algorithm for spectral clustering. It consists in replacing the projection on the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix by a power of the normalized Laplacian. This iteration, justified by the analysis of clustering in terms of Markov chains, performs a smooth truncation. We prove nonasymptotic bounds for the convergence of our spectral clustering algorithm applied to a random sample of points in a Hilbert space that are deduced from the bounds for the Gram operator in a Hilbert space. Experiments are done in the context of image analysis.
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Ilaria Giulini. Generalization bounds for random samples in Hilbert spaces. Statistics [math.ST]. Ecole normale supérieure - ENS PARIS, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015ENSU0026⟩. ⟨tel-01774959⟩



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