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Déterminants et perception de la santé orale des patients schizophrènes en Côte d'Or

Abstract : Background: Schizophrenia is a disease that affects 1 % of the world population. Persons with schizophrenia (PWS) are exposed to excess morbidity and mortality. Poor oral health among PWS is often observed by caregivers and accompanying persons. The objective of our study was to explore predictive factors, representations and perceptions of oral health among PWS and to construct a specific oral health quality of life scale for PWS.Methods: In a randomly selected, representative sample of 109 PWS in the Côte d’Or Department, we recorded socio-demographic, dental, and medical and lifestyle factors associated with oral health. An evaluation of the psychometric characteristics of the Global Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) scale was also performed, as well as a qualitative study based on semi-directive interviews with 20 PWS and 6 carers. Two focus groups (4 patients and 4 carers) enabled investigation of the perceptions and representations of oral health among PWS and building the first draft prototype of a specific tool to assess oral health quality of life of PWS.Results: Among 109 patients included, 61.5% were male, and average age was 46.8 ± 12.0 years. The majority (78%) had secondary level education and 79.8% received ambulatory care. The mean duration of schizophrenia was 17.9 ± 9.4 years, and 55.5% were taking several medications. The average DMFT (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth) was 16.6 ± 8.1. There was a significant relationship between level of education and oral health, lifestyle, medical conditions, polypharmacy and DMI. Concerning the psychometric validation of the GOHAI, internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach α = 0.82). The intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability were not significantly different (p> 0.05). Construct validity was supported by three factors which accounted for 60.94% of the variance observed. Predictive and concurrent validity were validated. The qualitative study yielded 3245 candidate verbatims for the development of a new scale, namely the SOHP, Schizophrenia Oral Health Perception Profile. Successive selections of items from the expert panel decision criteria and based on a feasibility study in 30 patients resulted in a scale comprising 43 items and one additional module of 11 items.Conclusion: We show the intricate links existing between mental and physical, oral and general health and the GOHAI validity in PWS. Further research is necessary to validate the psychometric properties of the SOHP scale in a larger population.
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Frédéric Denis. Déterminants et perception de la santé orale des patients schizophrènes en Côte d'Or. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017UBFCE006⟩. ⟨tel-01774921⟩

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