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Modeling of single cell and network phenomena of the nervous system : ion dynamics during epileptic oscillations and inverse stochastic resonance

Abstract : In this thesis we used dynamical systems methods and numericalsimulations to study the mechanisms of epileptic oscillations associated with ionconcentration changes and cerebellar Purkinje cell bimodal behavior. The general issue in this work is the interplay between single neuron intrinsicproperties and synaptic input structure controlling the neuronal excitability. In the first part of this thesis we focused on the role of the cellular intrinsicproperties, their control over the cellular excitability and their response to thesynaptic inputs. Specifically we asked the question how the cellular changes ininhibitory synaptic function might lead to the pathological neural activity. We developed a model of seizure initiation in temporal lobe epilepsy. Specifically we focused on the role of KCC2 cotransporter that is responsible for maintaining the baseline extracellular potassium and intracellular chloride levels in neurons. Recent experimental data has shown that this cotransporter is absent in the significant group of pyramidal cells in epileptic patients suggesting its epileptogenic role. We found that addition of the critical amount of KCC2-deficient pyramidal cells to the realistic subiculum network can switch the neural activity from normal to epileptic oscillations qualitatively reproducing the activity recorded in human epileptogenic brain slices. In the second part of this thesis we studied how synaptic noise might control the Purkinje cell excitability. We investigated the effect of spike inhibition caused by noise current injection, so-called inverse stochastic resonance (ISR). This effect has been previously found in single neuron models while we provided its first experimental evidence. We found that Purkinje cells in brain slices could be efficiently inhibited by current noise injections. This effect is well reproduced by the phenomenological model fitted for different cells. Using methods of information theory we showed that ISR supports an efficient information transmission of single Purkinje cells suggesting its role for cerebellar computations.
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Anatoly Buchin. Modeling of single cell and network phenomena of the nervous system : ion dynamics during epileptic oscillations and inverse stochastic resonance. Psychology. Ecole normale supérieure - ENS PARIS, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015ENSU0041⟩. ⟨tel-01774505⟩

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