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La fabrique des plantes globales : une géographie de la mondialisation des végétaux du Nouveau Monde et particulièrement de l’Amazonie

Abstract : Far from being an under-populated, wild or pristine region, the Amazon rainforest appears on the contrary to be the domestication center of origin of some of the most important plants of humanity. Therefore tobacco, cocoa, coca, rubber ; peppers, sweet potatoes, pineapples and cassava all originate from the largest tropical rainforest of the world. Nevertheless today, the biodiversity paradigm proposes to share in a fair way the benefits issued from the use of the crops with the indigenous people who discovered them. This aim implies to ask the following question: how does a plant become global? In other terms, how do some crops, originally produced and consumed at local or regional scales, become commodities exchanged and sometimes financiarized through planetary scales? Based on a several years multi-located fieldwork experience in the Amazon basin and thanks to the method of the global commodity chains analysis, we will try, from the human geography socio-spatial perspective, to understand the mechanisms of globalization of the Amazonian crops. Our first chapter will be dedicated to the construction of a theoretical model. In order to test its accuracy we will apply it, in the second and third chapters, to two contemporary crops in their way of globalization: the Amazonian nut (Bertholletia excelsa), particularly in Brazil, and the guaraná (Paullinia cupana Sorbilis), particularly around the Sateré Mawé indigenous people.
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Bastien Beaufort. La fabrique des plantes globales : une géographie de la mondialisation des végétaux du Nouveau Monde et particulièrement de l’Amazonie. Géographie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCA174⟩. ⟨tel-01773066⟩

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