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Durabilité de la résistance et mécanisme de tolérance au virus Y de la pomme de terre (PVY) chez Nicotiana tabacum

Abstract : Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most damaging viruses on tobacco crops. To control PVY, allelic forms of the recessive resistance gene va were introgressed into many tobacco cultivars. This gene was recently identified and encodes a copy of eukaryotic initiation translation factor (eIF4E-1). However, the va-mediated resistance is sometimes overcome by resistance-breaking variants including particularly severe necrotic isolates. The present PhD project had two objectives i) to further our understanding of the mechanism(s) modulating va-mediated resistance durability ii) to identify new, vaindependent genetic factors confering tolerance to veinal necrosis symptoms induced by necrotic PVY isolates. Phenotypic, genetic and transcriptomic analyses of 13 resistant tobacco accessions showed that the type of mutation at the locus eIF4E-1, together with the functionality and expression levels of other eIF4E copies, impact va-mediated resistance durability. The results obtained support a decoy model where the overexpression of the eIF4E-2 gene, as a consequence of the complete deletion of eIF4E-1 and of the partial deletion of eIF4E-3, would limit the ability of PVY to evolve towards resistancebreaking, increasing va-mediated resistance durability. In parallel, a NB-LRR R gene, called NtTPN1 (for Nicotiana tabacum Tolerance to PVY-induced Necrosis1) directly involved in the tolerance to PVY-induced systemic veinal necrosis symptoms in tobacco was identified. The phenotype of tolerance to PVY conferred by NtTPN1 opens novel breeding options to minimize the impact of the emerging and so far uncontrolled va-mediated resistance breaking necrotic PVY isolates.
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Vincent Michel. Durabilité de la résistance et mécanisme de tolérance au virus Y de la pomme de terre (PVY) chez Nicotiana tabacum. Biologie végétale. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0925⟩. ⟨tel-01772713⟩

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