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Structure de la queue du phage T5 et mécanisme de perforation de l’enveloppe bactérienne par les Siphoviridae

Abstract : The vast majority (96%) of bacteriophages possess a tail that allows host cell recognition, cell wall perforation and safe viral DNA channelling from the capsid to the cytoplasm of the bacterium. Siphoviridae is a familly representing 60% of all tailed phages characterized by a long flexible tail. The tail tube is formed by stacks of hexamers of the tail tube protein (TTP) polymerised around the tape measure protein (TMP). At the distal end of the tail, the tail tip complex harbours the receptor binding proteins (RBP). For these phages, little is known on the mechanism that triggers DNA ejection after binding to the host.We report the crystal structure at 2.2 Å resolution of pb6, an unusual trimeric TTP, of siphophage T5. Structure analysis however confirms the homology of pb6 with all TTPs, related tube proteins of bacterial puncturing devices (type VI secretion system and R-pyocin) and procapsid proteases. We fit this structure into the cryo-electron microscopy map of the tail tube determined at 6 Å resolution. Comparing the structure of the tail tube before and after interaction with the host receptor, we show that unlike previously proposed, the host binding information is not propagated to the capsid by the tail tube, as the two structures, at that resolution, are identical. An ambitious NMR comparative study of the TTP in its monomeric and tube form is underway to further describe this assembly.Moreover, the structures of the tail tip complex prior and after interaction with the bacterial receptor were solved at intermediate resolution. These structures reveal interesting conformationnal changes triggered by the RBP binding to the bacterial receptor. Those rearrangements are the first to occur after phage irreversible binding to its host and they induce the TMP ejection, the capsid opening, the enveloppe perforation and ultimately DNA channeling to the host cytoplasm.Together with biochemical data and comparison with other known system in the litterature we are able to propose a model for Siphoviridae very first steps of infection. These findings might be of interest for the mechanism of other viral familly (notably Myoviridae) and similarity with other membrane perforating systems is discussed.
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Charles-Adrien Arnaud. Structure de la queue du phage T5 et mécanisme de perforation de l’enveloppe bactérienne par les Siphoviridae. Biologie structurale [q-bio.BM]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAV086⟩. ⟨tel-01771870⟩

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