Apprentissage de séquences et extraction de règles de réseaux récurrents : application au traçage de schémas techniques.

Ikram Chraibi Kaadoud 1
1 Mnemosyne - Mnemonic Synergy
LaBRI - Laboratoire Bordelais de Recherche en Informatique, Inria Bordeaux - Sud-Ouest, IMN - Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives [Bordeaux]
Abstract : There are two important aspects of the knowledge that an individual acquires through experience. One corresponds to the semantic memory (explicit knowledge, such as the learning of concepts and categories describing the objects of the world) and the other, the procedural or syntactic memory (knowledge relating to the learning of rules or syntax). This "syntactic memory" is built from experience and particularly from the observation of sequences of objects whose organization obeys syntactic rules.It must have the capability to aid recognizing as well as generating valid sequences in the future, i.e., sequences respecting the learnt rules. This production of valid sequences can be done either in an explicit way, that is, by evoking the underlying rules, or implicitly, when the learning phase has made it possible to capture the principle of organization of the sequences without explicit recourse to the rules. Although the latter is faster, more robust and less expensive in terms of cognitive load as compared to explicit reasoning, the implicit process has the disadvantage of not giving access to the rules and thus becoming less flexible and less explicable. These mnemonic mechanisms can also be applied to business expertise. The capitalization of information and knowledge in general, for any company is a major issue and concerns both the explicit and implicit knowledge. At first, the expert makes a choice to explicitly follow the rules of the trade. But then, by dint of repetition, the choice is made automatically, without explicit evocation of the underlying rules. This change in encoding rules in an individual in general and particularly in a business expert can be problematic when it is necessary to explain or transmit his or her knowledge. Indeed, if the business concepts can be formalized, it is usually in any other way for the expertise which is more difficult to extract and transmit.In our work, we endeavor to observe sequences of electrical components and in particular the problem of extracting rules hidden in these sequences, which are an important aspect of the extraction of business expertise from technical drawings. We place ourselves in the connectionist domain, and we have particularly considered neuronal models capable of processing sequences. We implemented two recurrent neural networks: the Elman model and a model with LSTM (Long Short Term Memory) units. We have evaluated these two models on different artificial grammars (Reber's grammar and its variations) in terms of learning, their generalization abilities and their management of sequential dependencies. Finally, we have also shown that it is possible to extract the encoded rules (from the sequences) in the recurrent network with LSTM units, in the form of an automaton. The electrical domain is particularly relevant for this problem. It is more constrained with a limited combinatorics than the planning of tasks in general cases like navigation for example, which could constitute a perspective of this work.
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Ikram Chraibi Kaadoud. Apprentissage de séquences et extraction de règles de réseaux récurrents : application au traçage de schémas techniques.. Autre [cs.OH]. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0032⟩. ⟨tel-01771685⟩

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