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Involuntary unemployment and financial frictions in estimated DSGE models

Abstract : Thanks to their internal consistency. DSGE models, built on microecoc behavor, have become prevalenl for business cycle and policy analysis in institutions. The recent crisis and governments' concern about persistent unemployment advocate for mechanism, capturing imperfect adjustments in credit and labor markets. However, popular models such as the one of Smets and Wouters (2003-2007), although unsophisticated in their representation of these markets, are able to replicate the data as well as usual econometric tools. It is thus necessary to question the benefits of including these frictions in theoretical models for operational use.ln this thesis, I address this issue and show that microfounded mechanisms specifiç to labor and credit markets can significantly alter the conclusions based on the use of an estimated DSGE model, fom both a positive and a normative perspective.For this purpose, I build a two-country model of France and the rest of the euro area with exogenous rest of the world variables, and estimate it with and without these two frictions using Bayesian techniques. By contrast with existing models, I propose two improvements of the representation of labor markets. First, following Pissarides (2009), only wages in new jobs are negotiated by firms and workers, engendering stickiness in the average real wage. Second, I develop a set of assumptions to make labor market participation endogenous and unemployment involuntary in the sense that the unemployed workers are worse-off that the employed ones. Yet, including this setup in the estimated model is left for future research.Using the four estimated versions of the model, I undertake a number of analyses to highlight the role of financial and labor market frictions : an historical shock decomposition of fluctuations during the crisis, the evaluation of several monetary policy rules, a counterfactual simulation of the crisis under the assumption of a flexible exchange rate regime between France and the rest of the euro area and, lastly, the simulation of social VAT scenarios.
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Antoine Devulder. Involuntary unemployment and financial frictions in estimated DSGE models. Economics and Finance. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016PA01E016⟩. ⟨tel-01771082⟩

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