Evaluation des impacts environnementaux du chalutage de fond et de l'aquaculture en Tunisie : approche comparative par les Analyses de Cycle Vie (ACV)

Abstract : The main goal of ecology is to place human activities within a framework of sustainable development by enhancing their economic benefits, their social attractiveness and their environmental performances. Ecosystems that support fisheries and aquaculture are subject to several alterations of significant relevance to their functioning and to their abilities to provide goods and services. Therefore, the long-term sustainability of fishing and aquaculture is a major concern from an environmental and ecological viewpoint. Both activities carry risks of negative environmental impacts because of its close relation with the immediate environment. To better understand environmental impacts and ensure the sustainability of fishing and aquaculture, it is necessary to develop an integrative sciencebased approach to impact assessment. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has emerged as a robust method to estimate potential environmental impacts associated with a product. It allows the assessment of environmental impacts “from cradle to grave”, taking into account all stages of a product’s life. This thesis focuses on the adaptation of LCA to demersal trawling and aquaculture in Tunisia. The goal is to explore how LCA improves the environmental evaluation of seafood production systems and how it helps to better understand their links with the environment. Results revealed that rearing practices and fish feed were the greatest contributors to the impacts studied due to the production of fish meal and oil and the low efficiency of feed use. The study also showed that impact intensity of demersal trawling was proportional to the amount of fuel consumed. LCA is a valuable tool for assessing how to improve environmental sustainability of demersal trawling and aquaculture.
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Khaled Abdou. Evaluation des impacts environnementaux du chalutage de fond et de l'aquaculture en Tunisie : approche comparative par les Analyses de Cycle Vie (ACV). Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0141⟩. ⟨tel-01769977⟩

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