Étude et valorisation de composés naturels ou d’analogues de synthèse contrôlant l’adhésion de salissures marines

Abstract : Biofouling induces important economic and ecological problems. This phenomenon includes microorganisms (bacteria, microalgae…) giving the microfouling which allows the macrofouling development with algae, invertebrates and sponges. These organisms colonize every immersed surface as boat hull. The colonization induces reduced speed of ships and fuel overconsumption. In the past, the utilization of AF coatings with heavy metals or pesticides caused environmental problems. The purpose of the study is to find an alternative to AF compounds (copper) respecting the marine medium. The marine environment is an inspiration; a biomimetic approach could be an interesting strategy to inhibit biofouling. In a first part, a screening of one hundred compounds is realized against marine and terrestrial bacteria. Eight molecules from two families (batatasins and hemibastadins) are studied to understand the way of action. Among selected compounds, Dibromohemibastadin-1 (DBHB) from hemibastadin family shows promising AF activities. This molecule is able to inhibit the biofilm formation with an IC50 of 6,44 µg/mL against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and 12,8 µg/mL for the marine bacterium Paracoccus sp. 4M6. To identify the way of action of DBHB, the impact on the bacterial communication named quorum sensing is investigated. The molecule shows an anti-quorum sensing property. In a second part, another group participating at microfouling is studied: microalgae. In order to evaluate the impact of hemibastadin family in particular DBHB, microalgae adhesion and biofilm formation are characterized. DBHB induces inhibition only on the adhesion and the biofilm formation of the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium. The last part presents the formulation of coatings containing six compounds from the batatasin and hemibastadin families. These coatings have been immersed in a harbor to evaluate the impact on natural microfouling. Furthermore, a new method for the evaluation of AF coatings is developed in controlled conditions, in a photobioreactor. This method allows the evaluation of coatings on the formation of a mixed biofilm (bacteria and microalgae). This method has been established to avoid environmental constraints by immersion in natural condition. This study allows the characterization of the AF property of DBHB. This compound provides promising research path to limit biofouling. Moreover, the development of a test allowing adhesion and microalgae biofilm formation in dynamic condition improves the characterization of compounds activities.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 18, 2018 - 12:12:06 PM
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Tiffany Le Norcy. Étude et valorisation de composés naturels ou d’analogues de synthèse contrôlant l’adhésion de salissures marines. Bactériologie. Université de Bretagne Sud, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORIS453⟩. ⟨tel-01769717⟩

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