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Etude de la modulation des cellules myeloïdes murines au cours de l'endotoxémie

Abstract : Sepsis is a complex syndrome in which systemic infection leads to exacerbated inflammation and immunosuppression that can lead to the development of secondary infections. The progression of this syndrome is correlated with a marked decrease in the number of protective immune cells, especially dendritic cells (DCs). Studies on preclinical mouse models have shown that restoring the numbers or function of DCs decreased immunosuppression and susceptibility to infections.Conventional DC (cDCs) and monocytes are part of the system of mononuclear phagocytes, important in homeostasis and pathological conditions. Conventional DCs have a role of antigen presentation and overall orchestration of the immune system. Monocytes and their derivatives have a role of tissue cleaning and local regulation of immunity. Monocytes can also develop functions homologous to those of cDCs under certain conditions. However, recent studies have shown that DC may have different or even antagonistic roles depending on their ontogeny.These cells originate from a bipotent hematopoietic precursor restricted to these two lineages, the MDP (Monocytes and DCs progenitor). It is known that systemic infection induces the massive generation of myeloid cells at the expense of lymphocytes. This mechanism is sometimes called emergency myelopoiesis. Historically, the distinction of cDCs from cells derived from monocytes has been complicated by the very similar phenotype of these different populations. This is why many studies analysing the impact of septicemia on DCs have not evaluated the subpopulations involved in details. Recent advances have been made in the identification of cDCs and cells derived from monocytes as well as their respective haematopoietic precursors. We then sought to re-evaluate whether the emergency myelopoietic process favoured certain populations of mononuclear phagocytes in a murine model of endotoxemia.In this study, we have shown that the systemic injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induces the generation of antigen-presenting cells of monocytic origin (Mo-APC) in the spleen. We observed a parallel decrease in splenic cDCs numbers. In contrast to the decrease of cDCs numbers, Mo-APC generation is dependent on type I IFNs signalling. Moreover, we observed that LPS allows the induction of active monopoiesis in the bone marrow, depending on type I IFNs signalling.In parallel, we studied a recently discovered detection pathway for intracellular LPS potentially implicated in the reduction of cDCs number following LPS injection. This detection pathway is implicated in the lethality of LPS induced endotoxic shock. It activates the non-canonical inflammasome inducing pyroptotic cell death and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We observed that this signaling pathway did not appear to be involved in the reduction of the splenic cDCs following LPS injection. However, high-throughput screening revealed potential regulators of non-canonical inflammasome, and in particular in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.Overall, this work contributes to the improvement of our knowledge concerning the plasticity of haematopoietic precursors of mononuclear phagocytes system in pathological conditions. In the future, this knowledge could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting the immunosuppression of patients through the manipulation of myelopoiesis and mononuclear phagocytes.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01769065
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 17, 2018 - 4:39:06 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:14:50 AM

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Corentin Lasseaux. Etude de la modulation des cellules myeloïdes murines au cours de l'endotoxémie. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S023⟩. ⟨tel-01769065⟩

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