Habitation écologique et dispersion bâtie : les « habitats alternatifs » comme expérimentations pour des transitions socioécologiques en territoires de moyenne montagne

Abstract : This thesis examines the mutations of housing in the context of socio-ecological transitions. These society change processes aim to reduce ecological footprint and are initiated in niches by marginal changes. This work addresses the transformations in the margins of habitat production and it focuses of bottom-up initiatives driven by the inhabitants who set up self-promotion housing or that are involved in public authorities’ projects. The studied alternative housing projects are located in urbanization margins, in mid mountains rural areas. Indeed, in these territories, new ruralities have emerged based on the arrival of new residents supported by non-profit organization and promoted by local government policies and Parcs naturels régionaux. In this work, I thus question the organization of ecological housing in rural areas in the context of the socio-ecological transitions.The general hypothesis of this research is the following one: the alternative housing projects experiment ecological housing in mid mountain rural areas. I propose to test this hypothesis with a global approach to alternative housing projects in order to understand the ecological housing system organization. First, I analyze the relationship between actors in the project process and the use of material, energy and water resources in the construction and operation of these habitats. I then explore the deployment of the ways of living in the organization of the habitat and in the local space through the mobilities. Addressing different types of alternative housing, ecocommunity, rural cohousing and ecological estate, first allows to analyze the rural planning changes from inhabitants’ initiatives. In this way, I highlight the links between individual projects, support program of non-profit organizations and incentivizing public policies. Then, in the context of habitat production margins, I examine the contribution of alternative housing projects to the ecological housing of dispersedly built areas. I show the importance of collective strategies to allow a sober lifestyles, a use of local resources and mutualisation of space and goods. This work brings to light an ecological housing of dispersedly built areas between based on local autonomy and integration within physical and virtual networks.
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Ivan Mazel. Habitation écologique et dispersion bâtie : les « habitats alternatifs » comme expérimentations pour des transitions socioécologiques en territoires de moyenne montagne. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAH025⟩. ⟨tel-01768270⟩

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