Les bactériophages ARN F-spécifiques comme indicateurs du danger viral lié à la pollution fécale des matrices hydriques et alimentaires

Abstract : Enteric viruses are a leading cause of fecal-oral route transmitted diseases and currently, conventional fecal indicator bacteria (i.e. Escherichia coli, enterococcus) fail to assess this kind of hazard. In this context, the use of more efficient indicators to assess the hazard linked to viruses in water or foodstuff is required. F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH) present numerous benefits for this purpose. Of enteric origin, these viruses are found in high concentrations in wastewater. Sharing many structural similarities with pathogenic enteric viruses, FRNAPH are easily cultivable and their potential to track the origin of the pollution is also often investigated. However, some limits are still associated with these indicators, regarding to their ability to track the origin of the pollution or concerning the lack of correlation with pathogens. In this context, the aim of this work was to make clear the potential of FRNAPH as fecal and as viral indicators in environmental waters and shellfish. As a first step, their ability to track human pollution was optimized. In addition, our results underlined the gains bringing by FRNAPH detection, especially when focusing on shellfish microbiological quality management. Indeed, unlike fecal indicator bacteria, the accumulation of FRNAPH and their persistence in shellfish have been found to be close to that of enteric viruses (i.e. norovirus). Furthermore, when using comparable methods for their detection, high correlation was observed between human FRNAPH and norovirus in shellfish. Taking into account these observations, a sensitive method allowing the detection of infectious FRNAPH of human origin was developed to improve viral hazard management in water and food commodities (e.g. environmental waters, shellfish, soft fruits, leaf)
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Cédric Hartard. Les bactériophages ARN F-spécifiques comme indicateurs du danger viral lié à la pollution fécale des matrices hydriques et alimentaires. Virologie. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0152⟩. ⟨tel-01768003⟩

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