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Analyse environnementale et économique des filières bois-énergie

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to conduct the environmental and economic analysis of several wood-to-energy production chains based on various wood combustion technologies. The material and energy balances of the production chains are determined with modeling of forest growth and of wood combustion. The wood combustion models use the emission factors from real-scale experimental tests on stoves and boilers. Forest growth is modeled for maritime pine and beech plantations, according to several forest management schemes. The data on the harvest, transformation, and transport steps, as well as the economic data, were taken from the literature. The environmental analysis compares the impacts calculated by two methods: ReCiPe and CML 2001. A dynamic analysis of the “climate change” impact complements the discussion on the environmental impacts of energy wood. Finally, we open a broader perspective with modeling of land use and production costs of bioenergy on a global scale. The results of the Life Cycle Analysis show the importance of both combustion quality (linked to combustion technology), and the transformation and transport steps. For instance, pellet stoves and boilers have excellent efficiencies, but suffer from the consumption of fossil fuels to dry the biomass. These technologies are also much more expensive to buy than log stoves or boilers. The dynamic analysis shows that the intensification of wood production via the shortening of growth cycles leads to higher impacts that are not completely offset by the higher production rate
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Submitted on : Friday, April 13, 2018 - 10:35:06 AM
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Chloé Pelletier. Analyse environnementale et économique des filières bois-énergie. Milieux et Changements globaux. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0331⟩. ⟨tel-01765854⟩

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