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Liquides activés par jet de plasma froid pour le traitement sélectif du cancer colorectal : synthèse, caractérisation et essais thérapeutiques sur modèles cellulaires 3D in vitro et in vivo

Abstract : Plasma devices at atmospheric pressure (AP) generate many physical active species (photons, charged particles, electric field, etc.) and chemical (free radicals, reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, etc...). This species are well known for their direct or indirect biological effects thus biomedical treatment by low temperature plasma jets at AP is currently a hot research topic. The upsurge of radioresistance and chemoresistance of microorganisms and cancer cells requires the development of new biomedical treatment. In this general context, the present work is a step towards the understanding of the effect induced by low temperature plasma jets at atmospheric pressure on colorectal cancer (second leading cause of death by cancer in France). This thesis focuses on the implementation of an in vitro biological model (multicellular tumor spheroid of colorectal cancer HCT116) in 3 dimensions which allows to take into account key parameters in tumor proliferation. This model is also well suited for the prediction of in vivo results in the aim of a subsequent clinical study. Further research about kinetic reactions of active species has been studied from the plasma device up to intracellular interactions through physical, biological and chemical analyses. Indirect treatment of tumors was carried out through helium plasma jet activated liquids. This solution was chosen for its relevance for endoscopic treatment of colorectal cancer. Interaction between plasma activated liquid and multicellular tumor spheroids has shown two distinct pathways. The first one is the genotoxicity of activated medium induced by the occurrence of hydrogen peroxide which induced DNA damages once penetrated in intracellular medium and leading to cell death by apoptosis. A direct interaction between free radicals generated in liquid medium and the latter components (amino acids, glucose, etc.) associated with the occurrence of nitrites and nitrates induces a long-term antiproliferative effect of plasma activated liquid. Chemical pathways of the formation of these active species were identified by using different analysis techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance and optical emission spectroscopy. Therapeutic analysis have also demonstrated that plasma activated liquid damage preferentially colon cancer cells rather than healthy cells making it a particularly promising selective treatment method. The design and the characterization of a second plasma jet using argon as a carrier gas was carried out with the aim to improve the antiproliferative effect of plasmas on tumors while taking into account the requirement for the use of such device for colorectal cancer treatment.
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Florian Judée. Liquides activés par jet de plasma froid pour le traitement sélectif du cancer colorectal : synthèse, caractérisation et essais thérapeutiques sur modèles cellulaires 3D in vitro et in vivo. Plasmas. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU30344⟩. ⟨tel-01764953⟩

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