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Imagerie géophysique (électrique et sismique) haute résolution et modélisation du système hydrothermal superficiel de la Solfatare de Pouzzoles, Italie du Sud. Application à l’étude des processus hydrothermaux.

Abstract : The Campi Flegrei caldera is located in the metropolitan area of Naples (Italy), and it is one of the largest volcanic systems on Earth. Since 1950, this volcanic complex shows significant unrest, which accelerated over the last decade with a rise in the seismic activity, ground deformation, and the extent of the degassing area. Recent studies indicate that the volcanic system is potentially moving toward a critical state, although their authors remain unable to point out when and where a possible eruption could take place. The difficulty of predicting the real volcanic state is here mainly related to the hydrothermal system. Indeed, at the Campi Flegrei, it is difficult to separate the magmatic input signal from the hydrothermal response. Hence, the aim of this thesis is to improve our knowledge on the shallow hydrothermal system of the Solfatara volcano, where most of the renewal activity takes place. A multidisciplinary approach has been performed in two steps: first a geophysical imagery of the volcano and second the modeling of its hydrothermal system.The 3-D electrical resistivity tomography of the crater allows to recognize the main geological units, and their connection with hydrothermal fluid flow features. The interpretation of the resistivity model has been realized thanks to numerous soil complementary measurements: CO2 flux, temperature, self-potential, Cation Exchange Capacity and pH. We identify two liquid-dominated plumes: the Fangaia mud pool and the Pisciarelli fumarole. In the Fangaia area, the comparison between electrical resistivity and velocity models reveals strong gradients related to a sharp transition at the border between the hydrothermal plume and the high diffuse degassing region. Combining electrical resistivity model with hydrothermal tremor sources localization reveal the anatomy of the main fumarolic area. Two separated conduits, gas-saturated, feed the two fumaroles Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova. These conduits originate from the same gas reservoir located 60 m below the surface. The intense degassing activity, produced in the vicinity of fumaroles, creates large amounts of vapor condensation. The resistivity model reveals this condensate circulation, within a fractured area.All these results are incorporated into a multiphase flow model of the main fumarolic area. The simulation accurately reproduces the fumaroles observables: temperature, flux and CO2/H2O ratio. The model validates the geophysical imagery and confirms the interaction between Bocca Nuova fumarolic conduit and the condensate flow. Hence, this simulation explains for the first time the distinct geochemical signature of the two fumaroles due to a shallow water-interaction. The multidisciplinary approach performed in this thesis constitutes a new step toward a better understanding of hydrothermal interactions. Those phenomena have to be taken into account in order to perform dynamic modelling, and thus apprehend the real state of the volcanic system.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 12, 2018 - 2:30:34 PM
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Marceau Gresse. Imagerie géophysique (électrique et sismique) haute résolution et modélisation du système hydrothermal superficiel de la Solfatare de Pouzzoles, Italie du Sud. Application à l’étude des processus hydrothermaux.. Volcanologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAU035⟩. ⟨tel-01764919⟩

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