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Epidemiology and dynamic of dengue and chikungunya in several provinces in Vietnam

Abstract : Dengue and chikungunya are both transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and can cause potentially severe and or debilitating chronic disease. They are the fastest spreading diseases, in part because of the climate change. Vietnam is a hyperendemicity country for dengue and is at risk to be like neighboring Cambodia affected both by dengue and chikungunya and be an overlapping area of distribution for both viruses. The aim of this PhD work was therefore to assess the status of single and dual infections all over the country, investigate the presence of chikungunya, assess the efficiency of the surveillance procedures routinely established and assess the diversity of mosquito populations and their potential respective role. A first part of the PhD dissertation is devoted to a bibliographic review. The second part comprises three chapters associated to three different publications. The first chapter is devoted to a surveillance study in the general hospital if the Southern Province of Dong Thap. A cohort of 131 patients with acute fever symptoms was investigated for the presence of dengue and chikungunya. 101 patients out of 131 were confirmed with dengue. All four dengue serotypes were detected with a predominance of DENV2 and DENV4. No chikungunya infection was detected although reported in neighboring Cambodia. A differential efficiency of serological dengue detection was observed. Efficiency was 29% upon admission and 53% after seven days on the same patients. There is thus a clear risk of dengue being underestimated while chikungunya is not systematically detected. Changes in detection and surveillance procedures are therefore proposed to increase the efficiency of dengue detection and continue the monitoring the emergence of CHIKV. The second Chapter is dedicated to the respective role of A. aegypti and A. albopictus in the 2011 outbreak in the Northern capital city of Hanoi. Only DENV-1 and DENV-2 serotypes were detected from the 140 patients hospitalized. A positive correlation was found between the population density of A. aegypti and the number of human cases and duration of outbreaks. This was not observed for A. albopictus. Three pools of A. aegypti were positive with dengue virus, two with DENV-1 and one with DENV-2. This work indicate clearly the role of A. aegypti in the 2011 Hanoi epidemics. The last chapter of the PhD is devoted to a crosscutting country wide survey in five provinces border with Lao PDR and Cambodia. In this work, a total of 558 serum samples were collected from patients admitted in the 2012-2014 period in five provincial preventive medicine centers with acute fever and symptoms compatible to DENV-CHIKV infection. All four dengue serotypes were found altogether but not in the same province. Only two serotypes were found at the maximum in a single province. No CHIKV was detected. A total of 1104 adult mosquitoes were collected inside and outside houses at the same place. Mosquito population density and vector indexes were assessed following capture of larvae. Differing densities of mosquito populations were found with the highest one being in the Long An province border with Cambodia. Dengue viruses were detected mostly in A. albopictus. CHIKV was also detected in A. albopictus mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analysis of the collected mosquitoes showed a large diversity of genotypes, all of them having been described in other parts of the world. This part of the PhD work underline the dual role of A. aegypti and A. albopictus, the increasing role of the latter and the high level of man-related very long distance mobility of mosquitoes. This work underlines the need of novel approaches for surveillance both at the clinical and at the entomological level to efficiently tackle the risk of dengue and chikungunya outbreaks.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 10, 2018 - 6:24:08 PM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 2:58:07 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-01763165, version 1



Kim Lien Pham Thi. Epidemiology and dynamic of dengue and chikungunya in several provinces in Vietnam. Microbiology and Parasitology. Université Montpellier; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (Hanoi, Viet Nam), 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS095⟩. ⟨tel-01763165⟩



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