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Cardiopathie métabolique : un modèle de sénescence prématurée ?

Abstract : Background: The link between heart failure and obesity is not clear, and the mechanisms are unknown.Objectives: To validate the existence of metabolic cardiomyopathy and to explore the underlying mechanisms using mice models and rescue technics.Method: Establish a wild type mice model (WT, C57/BL6J, male) fed with a high fat diet (60% of fat, HFD), associated with rescue technics such as exercise (swimming) or visceral fat ablation. Use of a transgenic mice model with a deletion for the Osteopontin gene (OPN, senescence pathway). Analysis of HFD consequences on the adipose tissue histology and function, on the myocardial histology and function. In addition, analysis of the effects of physiological aging on the same parameters in WT and OPN mice. Finally, explore the link between adipose tissue dysfunction and cardiac dysfunction through the senescence pathway analysis, especially the OPN pathway.Results: First, we confirmed the development of a metabolic cardiomyopathy in HFD mice, which was characterized by left ventricular remodeling with myocardial fibrosis associated with a systolic dysfunction detected only by strain rate (normal LVEF) and in-vivo hemodynamic technics. In addition, we observed in the plasma of HFD mice an increase in pro-fibrotic markers (TGF, leptin) and a decrease in protective markers (adiponectine), which was related to a visceral adipose tissue dysfunction. We also observed a myocardial fibrosis with systolic dysfunction during physiological aging associated with an increased release of osteopontin from the visceral adipose tissue. Moreover, OPN ko mice were protected from cardiac senescence. The surgical removal of the visceral adipose tissue and the use of OPN inhibitors in WT mice also protected from cardiac senescence, which corroborated the role of the adipose tissue and its OPN production in the aging process. Finally, preliminary results on HFD mice showed a cardiac protection from visceral adipose tissue removal.Conclusion: The metabolic cardiomyopathy is a real entity, in which our data establish the proof-of –concept that adipose tissue senescence plays a key role in cardiac alteration that may be considered as premature cardiac aging. OPN may constitute a promising therapeutic target.
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Julien Ternacle. Cardiopathie métabolique : un modèle de sénescence prématurée ?. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC0064⟩. ⟨tel-01763137⟩

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