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Thérapie ciblée des glioblastomes via l'internalisation d'une toxine grâce à des biopolymères dirigés à la surface des cellules cancéreuses

Abstract : Targeted cancer therapies are drugs designed to interfere with specific molecules necessary for tumor growth and progression. Traditional cytotoxic chemotherapies usually kill rapidly dividing cells in the body by interfering with cell division. A primary goal of targeted therapies is to fight cancer cells with more precision and potentially fewer side effects.Antibody-based therapy for cancer has become established over the past 15 years and is now one of the most successful and important targeted strategies. In some cases, monoclonal antibodies are conjugated to radio-isotopes or toxins (immunotoxin) to allow specific delivery of these cytotoxic agents to the intended cancer cell target. Furthermore thargeted therapies may be based also on the use of targeting molecues other than antibodies, such as peptides, growth factors, and also nucleic acids.Indeed, in this work we studyed a multi targeting strategy to deliver toxic substances (protein toxin or its gene) to cancer cells (glioblastoma).Our group published a paper describing the use of PDZ protein domain of hCASK (serine kinase calcium/calmodulin-dependent of MAGUK family) and to exploit the ability of this protein to bind to the C-terminus of hCD98 in the extracellular space. CD98 is an interesting target because it is overexpressed in different types of tumors (Giansanti F., 2015). hCASK-PDZ was genetically fused to the toxin saporin and this chimeric toxin proved to be active on glioblastoma cells in vitro.Other cell killing agents were designed to recognize and bind specifically nucleolin (NCL). This multifunctional protein is overexpressed on the surface of activated endothelial and tumor cells. In this context, compounds targeting NCL, such an aptamer, and a multivalent pseudopeptide, have been developed and investigated for cancer therapy.The aptamer against NCL, NCL-APT also known as AS1411 (Antisoma, UK), is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved NCL targeting agent. It binds to NCL on the cell surface, preferentially gets internalized, and inhibits cancer cell growth sparing normal cells (Bates PJ, 2009).In parallel, our group, recently developed a multivalent synthetic pseudopeptide N6L that selectively binds to nucleolin (Destouches D., 2011). N6L strongly inhibits breast cancer growth by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and is currently in preparation for phase II clinical trials (IPP-204106). We demonstrated the anti-proliferative effect of N6L on human glioblastoma cells in primary culture prepared form post-surgical specimens (Benedetti E, 2015).The overexpression of NCL on glioblastoma cell surface and the recognized selectivity of AS1411 and N6L prompted us to study a way to increase the efficiency of these ligands binding them Saporin coding gene or the protein toxin Saporin-S6, a type 1 RIP (Ribosome-Inactivating Protein) widely studied because of its potential therapeutic application in a variety of human diseases as toxic moiety of a conjugate.The characterization of the toxic activity of AS1411 linked to saporin gene (APT-SAP) and of NCL linked to saporin protein (SAP-N6L) is therefore described. Both these researches are under evaluation for publication.All the described thargeted approaches, nothwithstanding some problems, look promising and need further research, but confirm the fact that exploiting targets to deliver toxic substances is the future of therapy for cancer forms that are difficult to beat with conventional therapies.
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Anne-Chloé Dhez. Thérapie ciblée des glioblastomes via l'internalisation d'une toxine grâce à des biopolymères dirigés à la surface des cellules cancéreuses. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est; Università degli studi (L'Aquila, Italie), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC0026⟩. ⟨tel-01763134⟩

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