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Theses

Amélioration de la représentation cartographique des phénomènes urbains

Abstract : More than half of the world's population now lives in cities. This proportion is 77.5% in France. The high density of the urban population causes several environmental problems such as noise, urban heat waves, chemical pollution or magnetic pollution. In a city, the inhabitants could get all the information by the computer infrastructures and the information sharing between the citizens themselves. If one of the objectives of smart cities is to improve the management of resources - such as water and electricity - another is to be able to control day by day what is happening in the city in terms of climate and pollution by collecting local information and mapping it in the public portal of cartography. Although the link between civic services, the interactions between people and government institutions is very important, the concerned information, usually represented by graphics or maps, is not easy to for all people to understand and to interpret. Thus the objective of this thesis is to propose solutions to improve the representation of urban phenomena with their geographical context and at different levels of detail so that it becomes easy to understand for the general public.In order to facilitate the perception of a phenomenon map, we propose a representation at different levels of detail, from the most general to the most detailed and to adapt the graphic density to the level of detail (preparatory optimization in the database) and to the current visualization scale (dynamic and interactive optimization with the user); a various choices of the cartographic space, for example a phenomenon may be represented on the set of buildings or streets, or on any structure of geometry chosen by the user; simple and adaptive symbols to the phenomenon; and an automatic identification of particular zones: with extreme values, exceeding the threshold of dangerousness or with a large dispersion, this allows the user to quickly locate areas of interest throughout the visualization. We also proposed to add the concept of observer and adapt the visualization according to the position of the observer in order to reduce the superposition between the 3D presentations of different levels of height of a phenomenon, when it varies according to of the altitude (and that these data are available)
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Thi Thu Ha Pham. Amélioration de la représentation cartographique des phénomènes urbains. Autre [cs.OH]. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1229⟩. ⟨tel-01763129⟩

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