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Etude de la maladie épizootique hémorragique en Tunisie

Abstract : The epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-borne virus that is on the OIE’s list (World Animal Health Organisation, formerly Office international des épizooties), this disease is mainly transmitted to wild (mainly deer) as well as domestic (primarily cattle) ruminants, by the bites of minute size midges, the culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) also known as biting midges. In the beginning of the 21st century, EHD was emerged in Maghreb (North Africa) and in the Middle East (Turkey, Israel, Jordan), causing severe losses for the farmers and ranchers.The unexpected emergency of EHDV in Tunisia in 2006, simultaneously with the observation of EHDV-6 cases in Morocco and Algeria, has aroused great concern in the Tunisian agricultural sector, which had already to face the occurrence of other animal diseases orbivirus: African horse sickness in 1966 and bluetongue in 1999 giving examples of the possibility that deemed exotic disease could emerge and become endemic (case bluetongue).This project was carried out to raise the knowledge on the EHDV virus causing the infection in Tunisia in 2006, which led to the appearance of clinical signs similar to those of BTV.First, we prepared a sampling of various samples of cattle, Culicoides type imicola collected in 2006 and stored at the serum bank of IRVT. So, we searched therefore the genome of the EHDV by RT-PCR in order to characterize and isolate the virus. Results showed that EHDV-6 was actually the serotype circulating in Tunisia in 2006. This part of the job was published in Acta Veterinaria Hungarica.The second working paper concerned the potential presence of the EHDV-6 in Tunisia before and after the epidemic of 2006 in two animal species: cattle and camels. For this we looked for antibodies or viral genome from field samples collected from 2000 to 2014 cattle and camels. Following this study, we detected a possible circulation of EHDV-6 at a very low level of intensity among the cattle. The found results were discussed and made the subject of a publication to be in the newspaper Veterinaria iItaliana.Regarding the study on the dromedary species sensitive to BTV, we wanted to examine its potential role as a reservoir species for EHD virus. All serological and virological results of our study indicate that this species does not seem to play a role in the epidemiology of EHD.Finally, alongside these researches on EHD virus, we have investigated the presence of Bluetongue Virus in Tunisian samples from camels and cattle. The results were discussed.All these studies contribute to a better knowledge of EHDV-6 present in Tunisia and allows taking into account some species that are potentially reservoir. Some presented researches could be pursued to assess the role of the camel as a reservoir for Orbivirus and better identify species of the faunal inventory of Culicoides involved in transmission of orbivirus.
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Sameh Ben Dhaou. Etude de la maladie épizootique hémorragique en Tunisie. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris-Est; Faculté des sciences de Bizerte (Tunisie), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC0023⟩. ⟨tel-01763049⟩

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