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Apports des modèles de métapopulation hors équilibre : application à l'évaluation de la dynamique des plantes forestières

Abstract : Metapopulation models are used to predict the occupancy of habitats from landscape spatial configuration. Habitat destruction and creation can lead to an extinction debt or an immigration credit that are time-delayed species dynamics following habitat turnover. Such delays mean that species are not in equilibrium with the current landscape structures. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the contribution of non-equilibrium metapopulation models to understand time-delayed dynamics theoretically and from empirical datasets about forest plants. For this purpose, we assessed the robustness of the method used to infer metapopulation parameters at the regional scale. Then, we applied this method from contemporary plant inventories and time-series of forest maps of the Seine-et-Marne and the Eure-et-Loir french regions. Models satisfactorily reproduced some characteristics of forest plant spatial structure that are due to historical changes in forest areas. Indeed, some species are more frequent in ancient forests and some others are more frequent in recent forests notably due to species traits and their affinity for specific environmental characteristics. From long-term projections of species dynamics, we showed that the delays in forest plant dynamics are several centuries following habitat turnover and strongly depend on habitat functional connectivity. Virtual scenarios of habitat turnover were simulated to assess other study cases than the two study areas. We projected metapopulation dynamics, while controlling for some metapopulation parameters, to test the relative effects of species dispersal distance and the spatial configuration of habitat turnover on these dynamics. Metapopulation return time towards equilibrium not only depends on the magnitude of the extinction debt or on the magnitude of the immigration credit but also on these two variables.These results put forward the need to improve our knowledge on the effects of successive perturbations that make species return towards equilibrium unsure.
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Etienne Lalechère. Apports des modèles de métapopulation hors équilibre : application à l'évaluation de la dynamique des plantes forestières. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC057⟩. ⟨tel-01762836⟩

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