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Caractérisation des glycérolipides et de la dynamique de remodelage en chaines acyles chez Ostreococcus tauri

Abstract : The marine green picoalga Ostreococcus tauri is a minimal eukaryote implemented as model system that has been used as gene resource for lipid biology. Detailed information about its lipidic features was however missing. During my PhD, I characterized O. tauri glycerolipidome and associated dynamics under environmental stresses such as nutrient starvations and chilling and investigated transcriptional variations of putative target enzymes responsible for these changes. O. tauri which could be validated as model for related species of the class Mamiellophyceae, was found to display unique lipidic features related to both green and Chromalveolates microalgae. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is confined to presumed extraplastidial lipids i.e. phosphatidyldimethylpropanethiol (PDPT) and the betaine lipid diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-trimethyl-β-alanine (DGTA); all of these compounds are hallmarks of Chromalveolates. Plastidial lipids found to be of prokaryotic type are characterized by the overwhelming presence of C18 n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), 18:5 n-3 being restricted to galactolipids. C16:4 n-3, an FA typical of green microalgae galactolipids, also was a major component of O. tauri extraplastidial lipids. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) display the complete panel of FAs, and their molecular combinations designate a major plastidial origin of DAG precursors. Nitrate starvation greatly increases TAG content, in particular 18:X/16:X (sn-1/sn-2) combinations, and was associated with the transfer of carbon from phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) to TAG indicating an increased contribution of the plastidial pathway to the TAG synthesis. Preliminary RT-qPCR experiments on TAG metabolism genes revealed an important transcriptional activation of some diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT). Nutrient starvations severely repress Δ6 desaturase activity and result in the inversion of the 18:3/18:4 ratio in plastidial lipids that was feedback into TAG. The fine-tuning and dynamic regulation of the 18:3/18:4 ratio suggests an important physiological role of these FAs in photosynthetic membranes. Chilling generates an increase of 18:5 in galactolipids. The active quest for the desaturases responsible for this phenotype was achieved by expressing candidate genes in homologuous and heterologous (S. cerevisiae, N. Benthamiana) systems and led to the identification of two yet uncharacterized plastidial Δ6 desaturases. These desaturases display original and non-redundant specificity between each other and with the previously characterized in O. tauri Δ6 acyl-CoA desaturase.
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Submitted on : Monday, April 9, 2018 - 2:26:08 PM
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Charlotte Degraeve Guilbault. Caractérisation des glycérolipides et de la dynamique de remodelage en chaines acyles chez Ostreococcus tauri. Biologie végétale. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0825⟩. ⟨tel-01761866⟩

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