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Combustible solaire : caractérisation du mécanisme de transfert de charge dans des molécules photocatalytiques, vers la production de l'énergie par photosynthèse artificielle

Abstract : Developpment of environment-friendly sources of energy is one of the stakes major for our societies. To hope for the sustainability of Humans on Earth, it is essential to change our consumer habits on energetics by breaking our dependance on fossil fuels, which use leads to ecological desasters and which stocks are running out. The key of this important challenge is the growth of renewable energy sources, and this is called energy transition. The ideal energy would not produce any polluting waste, would be efficient and widely available. Solar energy is an excellent candidate because it is by far the most abundant and promising source of clean energy. Thus, important efforts are made to developp the solar technologies, including artificial photosynthesis.Artificial photosynthesis was created a century ago and is the focus of many interests and researchs. This technology aims at mimicking the natural photosynthesis realized by plants ; and that in order to store the energy coming from the Sun irriadiation in compounds that can be used at demand. Artificial photosynthesis consists in the elaboration of synthetic systems able under light impulsion to realize the water splitting/decomposition reactions in a catalytique way, generating hydrogène or CO2 reduction products, which are called solar fuels thanks to their high energetic potentials. Indeed, photosynthesis begins with the photo-catalysis of water oxidation, which extirpates the electrons and protons of water molecules. And it is these electrons and protons which will be used to produce the solar fuels.Recently, a real commitment to understand deaply the mechanisms that take place during these catalysed reactions seems to appear. These transformations involve multiple photo-induced electron transfers and it returns their study relatively complicated. Thanks to technological breakthroughs, we studied in a thorough way several photocatalytic systems to draw knowledges ; allowing the rationalisation of the design and then the efficiency improvement of future developped systems. These technical advances were possible thanks to interdisciplinary collaborations between chemists and physicists and led to the developpment of a set-up of « double-pump » transient absorption, that enables to characterize the transient species formed and to track down the pathways during two successive photoinduced electron transfers.In the second part of this work, new catalysts were developped for the photocatalysis of water oxidation reaction. The big majority of the studies led so far on this subject concerned molecular systems, but the lack of robustness and reusability of homogeneous catalysts pushed the research towards materials area. Since about forty years, heterogeneous systems were developped for photocatalysis of several reactions. We explored two types of materials, nanoparticules as catalyst in photocatalytic systems ; and polymers that are able on their own to realize all the functions required for the photocatalysis of a reaction such as water oxidation under visible light irradiation.Thus, during this PhD we tried by two approaches to increase the knowledges and the development of artificial photosynthesis. A solution that is still under-developped to fix the energetic issue our society is facing to, is the use of solar fuels ; and it’s imperative for the research to move forward and that energy transition prevails more effectively and widely.
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Stéphanie Mendes Marinho. Combustible solaire : caractérisation du mécanisme de transfert de charge dans des molécules photocatalytiques, vers la production de l'énergie par photosynthèse artificielle. Catalyse. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS299⟩. ⟨tel-01760997⟩

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