Etude des métabolismes du fer et de l’hème au cours de l’érythropoïèse normale et pathologique (anémie de Blackfan-Diamond)

Abstract : Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare hematologic disease that affects 4 to 7 individuals / million births. This disease is characterized by a severe congenital erythroblastopenia (less than 5% erythroid precursors in the bone marrow). Anemia is agerenative, often macrocytic and associated with bone malformations in 40% of cases. 70% of patients carry a heterozygous mutation for a ribosomal protein gene involved in cell translation. The most frequently mutated genes are RPS19 (25%), RPL11 (5%) and RPL5 (7%) genes. The disease is heterogeneous and can evolve. The link between cell translation and erythropoiesis is not well understood. The objectives of this thesis were to study haem and iron metabolisms as well as the expression of globins in DBA patients cells and CD34+ cells transduced with shRNA targeting the expression of these three genes in order to understand the causes of the erythroid tropism of the disease. This research has highlighted a major defect of globin synthesis resulting in an increase in the amount of free heme and a production of toxic ROS in patients' cells that could explain in part cell apoptosis and red blood cell deficiency. While iron metabolism did not appear to be altered in DBA, the study of the expression of various important proteins for erythropoiesis in normal CD34+ or DBA cells during erythroid differentiation in vitro confirmed a strong cell differentiation delay for RPL5 and RPL11 mutations. This work shows that the delay of differentiation and the lack of hemoglobinization can be explained by a deficiency of the transcription factor GATA-1, which is essential during erythropoiesis. This deficiency of GATA-1 in shRPL11 cells is due to a degradation of its chaperone protein HSP70. The restoration of HSP70 increases the expression of GATA-1 and improves erythroid differentiation and cellular hemoglobinization for the shRPL11 condition. These results provide a better understanding of the erythroid tropism of ABD and suggest a role for HSP70 as a promising therapeutic target in its treatment.
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Sarah Rio. Etude des métabolismes du fer et de l’hème au cours de l’érythropoïèse normale et pathologique (anémie de Blackfan-Diamond). Biologie cellulaire. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB055⟩. ⟨tel-01759755⟩

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