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Mobilisation et transfert des composés aromatiques polycycliques (HAP et CAP polaires) dans les sols historiquement contaminés par des goudrons de houille : expérimentations au laboratoire et in situ

Abstract : In industrial countries, many sites have been diagnosed polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition to the regulated 16 US-EPA PAHs, other polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), especially polar PACs (oxygenated and nitrogenated) occur. They come from the same sources as PAHs but they may also be formed due to PAH degradation under biotic or abiotic processes (natural attenuation or remediation treatment). These PACs, more polar than the 16 US-EPA PAHs, are more soluble in water, resulting in a potentially increased mobility in soils and a higher risk for Humans and Environment. Thus, there is a need to increase our knowledge on polar PAC mobility in soils and their transfer to the groundwater. Combining laboratory and in situ works, this project aimed at identifying the mechanisms involved in the release and transfer mode of polar PACs in soils compared to the 16 US-EPA PAHs. Our works confirm a preferential release of polar PACs compared with PAHs. Polar PACs and low molecular weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs) are mainly released according to a coal tar dissolution mechanism (Raoult law). While satisfactory predictions are obtained for polar PAC release when the pollution is “fresh”, availability is a major parameter that needs to be taken into account for historical contamination impacted by aging. Indeed, whatever the leaching conditions (static-batch and dynamic-column), the PAC concentration in water is highly dependent on the availability level of the pollution. In addition, for a high level of PAC availability, the other parameters studied in the project (ionic strength and temperature) have a limited impact on the PAC release whereas at low availability level, these parameters can show a greater influence. Moreover, the PAC release in association with colloids seems limited for polar PACs but dominating for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs), especially under low ionic strength conditions. Leaching tests performed on a lysimeter column (2 m3) filled with a contaminated soil in the 2/3 upper part and with a non-contaminated soil in the 1/3 lower part, both soils being sampled on a former coking plant site, confirm a release of PACs according to a coal tar dissolution mechanism although PAC concentrations are widely lower compared to those predicted by the Raoult law. Whatever the experimental scale studied (batch, laboratory or lysimeter column), a clear influence of the biological compartment has been evidenced. Once the PAHs and polar PACs are dissolved into water, they are highly biodegraded. No by-products - especially oxygenated PACs - were detected
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  • HAL Id : tel-01759750, version 1

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Marine Boulangé. Mobilisation et transfert des composés aromatiques polycycliques (HAP et CAP polaires) dans les sols historiquement contaminés par des goudrons de houille : expérimentations au laboratoire et in situ. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0138⟩. ⟨tel-01759750⟩

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