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Développement d'électrodes modifiées et d'un bioréacteur électrochimique à flux continu pour une application aux biopiles microbiennes

Abstract : Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been considered as a renewable energy source which uses bacteria to convert chemical energy into electricity. Since the anode, as the electron acceptor for the electroactive bacteria, directly interacts with microorganisms, the selection of high performance anode materials is of crucial importance in the design of a MFC. Recently, graphene has been considered as the intriguing material, attracting strong scientific and technological interest with great application potentials in various fields, such as lithium ion batteries, solar cells and electrochemical super-capacitors, for its unique nanostructure and extraordinary properties. Therefore, surface modification using reduced graphene oxide has been investigated for the construction of anodes. An abiotic cathode has also been investigated since it often has a kinetic limitation regarding the oxygen reduction reaction. The potential of the use of organometallics complexes, and more particularly nickel phthalocyanines (poly-NiTSPc), has been studied and applied to the fabrication of cathodes for biofuel cells applications. Thereby, a dual chamber hybrid MFC has been constructed combining a reduced graphene oxide modified bioanode with a chemical poly-NiTSPc modified carbon felt. This MFC uses compost garden leachate, as source of microorganisms, for the growth of an electroactive biofilm onto the anode and presents an excellent lifetime. Indeed, graphene allowed to obtain a power density stable for 40 fays (24.8 mW/m² with pure oxygen). When the modified carbon felt was used as cathode, the power densities obtained were 7.5 higher than the use of platinum cathode. Furthermore, a new design of a dual chamber MFC has been built up in order to work with a constant flow, to supply continuously substrates to the biofilm formed onto the anode from a pure strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and to avoid to work in a batch as it is usually done. The interest of this configuration is to prevent any current loss due to a lack in supply of substrates. Using this bioreactor as a MFC, different parameters have been explored such as the feed rate and the glucose consumption in the anodic compartment, the evolution of the pH as well as the biomass between the entrance and the exit of the chamber. A first study of the correlation between all these parameters has been proposed.
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Joffrey Champavert. Développement d'électrodes modifiées et d'un bioréacteur électrochimique à flux continu pour une application aux biopiles microbiennes. Matériaux. Université Montpellier, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTT205⟩. ⟨tel-01758931⟩

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