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Couleur des jus de pomme et des cidres : analyse structurale et impact de plusieurs paramètres physico-chimiques

Abstract : The phenolic compounds are involved in the main organoleptic properties of plant-derived foods. They are especially responsible for the bitterness, the astringency and the color of apple cider products. The browning observed during fruit processing is related to the formation of yellow-orange pigments. By its catalytic activities, the polyphenol oxidase, a plastidial enzyme, initiates the oxidation of polyphenols in the presence of oxygen. It leads to the formation of quinones, very reactive species which are quickly involved in further chemical reactions. Some of the neoformed products are colored. Four apple juices, showing contrasted colors, were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD-MS in order to obtain their profiles in colored compounds. The presence of yellow-orange oxidized tanning and non-tanning compounds was highlighted. Within the latter compounds, some phloridzin oxidation products, deriving from dihydrochalcones, were clearly identified (POPj, XGPOPj). In parallel, coupled approaches in real media and model solutions led to the identification of a new colored structure deriving from an oxidative coupling between a dihydrochalcone and a flavanol monomer. Finally, catechin trimers were also characterized in synthetic medium but they were not detected directly in apple juices. Moreover, the color expressed by the yellow-orange pigments can suffer some variations as a function of the physical-chemical environment. For instance, the cider fermentation results generally in a loss of color in apple juices; but the composition of the fermentative medium evolves under the influence of several parameters, such as pH and redox potential. The impact of reducing conditions on the color of POPj and A-type dehydrotriepicatechin, both selected as model pigments of apple juices, was explored by cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectroelectrochemistry. Besides, the changes in spectral properties of POPj, related to its protonation state, were rationalized by TD-DFT calculations.
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Erell Le Deun. Couleur des jus de pomme et des cidres : analyse structurale et impact de plusieurs paramètres physico-chimiques. Sciences agricoles. Université Rennes 1, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016REN1B047⟩. ⟨tel-01758930⟩

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