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Approximation diophantienne sur les variétés projectives et les groupes algébriques commutatifs

Abstract : In this thesis, we study diophantine geometry problems on projective varieties and commutative algebraic groups, by means of tools from Arakelov theory. A central notion in this work is the slope theory for hermitian vector bundles, introduced by Bost in the 1990s. More precisely, we work with its generalization in an adelic setting, inspired by Zhang and developed by Gaudron. This dissertation contains two major lines. The first one is devoted to the study of a remarkable theorem due to Faltings and Wüstholz, which generalizes Schmidt’s subspace theorem. We first reformulate the proof of Faltings and Wüstholz using the formalism of adelic vector bundles and the adelic slope method. We then establish some effective variants of the theorem, and we deduce an effective generalization of Liouville’s theorem for closed points on a projective variety defined over a number field. In particular, we give an explicit upper bound for the height of the points satisying a Liouville-type inequality. In the second part, we establish new measures of linear independence of logarithms over a commutative algebraic group. We focus our study on the rational case. Our approach combines Baker’s method (revisited by Philippon and Waldschmidt) with arguments from the slope theory. More importantly, we introduce a new argument to deal with the periodic case, inspired by previous works of Bertrand and Philippon. This method does not require the use of an extrapolation on derivations in the sense of Philippon-Waldschmidt. In this way, we are able to remove an important hypothesis in several theorems of Gaudron establishing lower bounds for linear forms in logarithms.
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François Ballaÿ. Approximation diophantienne sur les variétés projectives et les groupes algébriques commutatifs. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC034⟩. ⟨tel-01758162⟩

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