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Functional reorganization of the yeast genome during the cell cycle

Abstract : Decades of studies showed that chromatin structure is tightly linked to DNA related metabolic processes, through the dynamic regulation of a myriad of molecular factors. The proper organization of chromosomes is notably important to ensure the maintenance of DNA integrity during cell cycle progression. Using the model S. cerevisiae, the aim of my PhD project was to characterize to which extent chromatin reorganization during the cell cycle may influence chromosome stability. To do so, we first generated a comprehensive genome-wide study of the reorganization of yeast’s chromosomes during an entire cell cycle. This work, besides recapitulating expected chromosomal features of the replication and mitotic stages, led to the characterization of peculiar chromosome structures such as a DNA loop bridging the rDNA and the centromeres. The role of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes and of microtubules were thoroughly investigated. A second part of my work focused on describing features of the chromatin organization of cells that exited the proliferative cell cycle and entered into quiescence. We characterized the dense status of silenced heterochromatin at specific loci, such as telomeres, in relation to the silent information regulators (SIRs). Finally, we tried to achieve a better understanding of the functional interplay between chromosome stability and the 3D genome architecture during replication, by investigating the genomic stability at replication pausing sites. Overall, our results point at a striking plasticity of replication structures to different stresses. Future work aims to map replication-dependent chromosomal rearrangements on the genomic maps.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 3, 2018 - 11:37:08 AM
Last modification on : Sunday, October 25, 2020 - 7:43:49 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-01756973, version 1


Luciana Lazar-Stefanita. Functional reorganization of the yeast genome during the cell cycle. Genetics. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066400⟩. ⟨tel-01756973⟩



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