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Otolithes et bioindication : conséquence d’un stress environnemental sur la morphologie des sagittae de Dicentrarchus labrax et Oblada melanura

Abstract : The aim of our study was to validate the most suitable environmental indicator among three approaches: morphological measurements of fish juveniles; quantification of the fluctuating asymmetry of their otoliths; analysis of their otolith shape. In aquaria, results for Dicentrarchus labrax have shown that mono-contamination by classical pollutants, such as phosphorus or zinc, has no effect for concentrations corresponding to those measured in highly anthropized environments. Nevertheless, higher zinc concentrations induce otolith shape alterations in addition to their negative impact on fish size and weight. On the basis of our three-year in situ Oblada melanura samplings, we have demonstrated that, in a replicable manner, compared to preserved areas and small waterway mouths, mid-size recreational harbours negatively impact juvenile standard length and also alter otolith shape. By comparison with in aquaria results, these alterations are consistent with a synergy of disturbance sources which taken independently do not have any impact. Taking into account all our results, we deduce that size and weight are easy to measure but show response variability. Measurement of fish juvenile otoliths' fluctuating asymmetry does not seem to be suitable for use in bioindication. Conversely, fish juvenile sagittae shape analysis is well-suited to surveys of environmental modifications, for fishes from two different families, Moronidae and Sparidae. This analysis seems to be a promising tool for bioindication, with a practical application for environmental managers.
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Submitted on : Sunday, April 1, 2018 - 1:02:21 AM
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Pierre Vandenbussche. Otolithes et bioindication : conséquence d’un stress environnemental sur la morphologie des sagittae de Dicentrarchus labrax et Oblada melanura. Ecologie, Environnement. COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017AZUR4122⟩. ⟨tel-01756164⟩

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