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Study of the crack propagation arrest phenomenon by means of a multi-scale coupling : Fretting, Fretting Fatigue and C(T) Fatigue test

Abstract : Aircraft structures such as blade/disk, rivet/sheet and fretted or bolted assembly contacts are subjected to fatigue fretting damage caused by vibratory loads. These loads combining fretting (alternating micro displacements) and fatigue contact loading can induce cracks. The objective of this thesis is to identify the propagation and crack arrest mechanisms for different configurations involving fretting and fatigue loads. Various aspects will be studied : - Simple fretting, fatigue fretting and fatigue tests will be correlated in a way to measure some material mechanical properties. A reverse approach allowing to identify the long and short fatigue crack propagation thresholds from simple fretting and fretting fatigue will be introduced. - A new closure model taking into account the effect of loading ratio on crack closure in fretting and fretting fatigue tests will be proposed. - The scaling effect will be studied thanks to the development of a new fretting fatigue machine allowing for in-situ monitoring of the propagation of small scale cracks. The behavior of fretting short cracks has been observed for the first time in a fretting fatigue test. The main idea behind the current work is the consideration that for a simple fretting test, the crack will always lead to a crack propagation arrest condition. Threshold stress intensity factors can thus be extracted from fretting tests using a reverse method. The methodology used consists in measuring the longest fretting crack corresponding to a crack propagation arrest condition. Short and long crack regimes are studied by varying fretting loads and geometries. The corresponding threshold stress intensity factor is calculated for each arrest condition. A complete description of fatigue crack arrest thresholds can be obtained from a plot depicting the evolution of the stress intensity factor range as a function of crack length. This methodology has been applied on multiple simple fretting configurations and was extended to fretting fatigue tests allowing to study a large range of loading ratios. Conventional fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out on C(T) specimens in order to validate the reverse method used for crack arrest conditions. The present thesis is divided into six main chapters. Chapter 1 provides a complete literature review on short and long crack propagation in metallic materials introducing crack closure. It provides a treatment for both fretting and fretting fatigue including a comparative analysis. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the different techniques and methodologies used as part of this research project. The reverse method used for the identification of crack propagation arrest conditions as well as a numerical analysis are presented in Chapter 3. The following Chapters provide a treatment of the various results obtained. Chapter 4 focuses on simple fretting tests carried out on different metallic materials. A correlation between simple fretting and long fatigue crack arrest conditions was obtained for negative loading ratios. This analysis is extended to positive loading ratios in Chapter 5 combining simple fretting, prestressed fretting and C(T) fatigue tests. Finally, scaling effects and fretting fatigue crack propagation kinetics are studied in Chapter 6.
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Alix De Pannemaecker. Study of the crack propagation arrest phenomenon by means of a multi-scale coupling : Fretting, Fretting Fatigue and C(T) Fatigue test. Other. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015ECDL0010⟩. ⟨tel-01755788⟩

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