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Effets des entrées énergétiques sur les composés azotés dans la haute atmosphère de la Terre

Abstract : Space weather is the study of the Solar activity’s impact on Earth’s space environment. This is relevant as it may have serious consequences over modern technology, such as high-voltage power lines grids or telecommu- nication systems via satellites. Solar activity is also the phenomenon that causes the aurorae, which can be seen in Earth’s upper atmosphere, at the poles, at the base of magnetic field lines. Due to this aurorae may be used as a proxy for the study of Solar particles trapped in Earth’s magnetic field.Auroral emissions are complex, as they are spread over various altitudes and wide spectral ranges. Therefore, they remain an observational chal- lenge.Emissions from atomic lines transitions in aurorae are well documented and understood, but this is not always the case for molecular emissions. These are a potential source of information on energetic inputs from the magnetosphere. This is the context in which the ATISE (Auroral Thermo- spheric and Ionospheric Spectrometer Experiment) nanosatellite was designed in the Grenoble University Space Center. Its purpose will be to observe Earth’s upper atmosphere through the acquisition of spectra in near-UV and visible domains.Dinitrogen N2 and its ion N2+ are major components of Earth’s atmos- phere at larges altitudes, and therefore a logical choice in order to define molecular emission observability. On the other hand, nitrogen monoxide NO is a minor component in the thermosphere, but has a key role in stra- tospheric ozone destruction, and therefore has important consequences on the climate.Auroral emissions, and more particularly their vertical profiles and in- tensities were studied with the TRANS model, which solves the Boltzmann equation for electron transport in the atmosphere. We used these results to define the scientific requisites for the ATISE mission. In a second phase, we tested and analyzed the results of a ground demonstrator of the instru- mentation that will be found in the nanosatellite. It showed great potential, despite the fact that part of the specifications are not yet fulfilled. Finally, still looking for new observables quantities for space weather, we studied the polarisation of auroral light, with a focus on the 427,8 nm band of N2+.
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Anne Vialatte. Effets des entrées énergétiques sur les composés azotés dans la haute atmosphère de la Terre. Planétologie et astrophysique de la terre [astro-ph.EP]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAY066⟩. ⟨tel-01755768⟩

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