Contrôle du bruit par effets de localisation par géométries irrégulières

Abstract : In this thesis, the acoustical behavior of irregular cavities leading to localization phenomenon is investigated for noise reduction applications. The aim of this work is to study and create by means of passive method, an accumulation of acoustical energy and dissipate it. Before addressing geometrical irregularities effects on the sound field, viscothermal dissipation mechanisms of sound are recalled and illustrated through few networks of quarter-wave resonators. In a second part, a study of the localization phenomenon is carried out by a modal analysis approach. The localization is quantified by the relative existence volume (VER), an indicator which gives a measure of the volume of the region in which a mode is localized as a fraction of the total cavity volume. The localization analysis is conducted using both regular and irregular cavities. It has been shown that only cavities with irregular geometry, such that sub-cavities are formed, can localize some acoustical modes. Moreover, the frequency of a localized mode is related to the dimensions of the localization region. Following the investigation of the localization phenomenon, the relation between cavities geometry and sound energy dissipation has been studied by the estimation of damping indicators, such as the quality factor, the sound absorption coefficient or the energy damping rate. According to this study, irregular cavities have higher capability to damp sound waves compared to regular cavities. However, for the case of irregular cavities only, the induced dissipation is not proportional to the localization. Nevertheless, when irregularities of rigid walls are not able to achieve sufficient dissipation, this can be obtained with slightly absorptive porous materials of irregular geometry. In fact, the dissipative properties of some porous materials can be optimized by giving them irregular interface. Finally, an experimental set-up has been designed to validate the localization phenomenon and to confirm the damping tendency of irregular geometries in comparison to regular ones. Moreover, measurements of the sound absorption coefficient of a hemp concrete reveal that the sample of irregular geometry achieves sound dissipation more than 40% higher than the one achieved by a regular plane sample. Finally, this thesis has addressed a technological challenge consisting of experimentally validating the localization phenomenon which is so far very difficult to obtain by the use of conventional pressure microphones. In the framework of this thesis, an optical non-conventional sound pressure measurement technique has been used. The used technique is the laser refracto-vibrometry which consists of using a laser vibrometer in some specific conditions to measure the acoustical field (sound pressure). This technique is difficult to conduct but it has the advantage of being contactless, thus less cumbersome for even very small cavities as compared to pressure microphones.
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Fulbert Mbailassem. Contrôle du bruit par effets de localisation par géométries irrégulières. Acoustique [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSEI095⟩. ⟨tel-01755490⟩

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