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Supplémentation nutritionnelle en arginine chez des sujets sains présentant des facteurs de risque liés au syndrome métabolique : métabolisme de l'arginine alimentaire et impact sur la fonction endothéliale

Abstract : Vascular endothelial dysfunction, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis, results from an impairment of the synthesis and/or bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), the precursor of which is arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is also known to be induced transiently by a high-fat meal. In subject with cardiometabolic risk factors, oral arginine supplementation has a beneficial effect on NO-related physiological functions. However, no data relates the availability of arginine to the synthesis of NO in normal or cardiometabolic risk condition. In addition, few studies only have investigated the effect of arginine supplementation in a nutritional context (low dose and slow release) in subjects with cardiometabolic risk factors. This work aims to evaluate the effect of a nutritional arginine supplementation, on the arginine metabolism and endothelial function in healthy subjects with cardiometabolic risk factors. In a first clinical study, we have compared the bioavailability of oral arginine and its utilization for NO synthesis, as a function of the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors, and as a function of the form of release (immediate release, IR, as free arginine, or sustained release, SR, which mimics the slow release of dietary arginine). Then, in a second clinical study, we studied the effect of SR-arginine supplementation on fasting endothelial function and its postprandial alteration in healthy subjects with cardiometabolic factors. A further aim was to investigate whether this effect may vary according to the baseline arginine status of subjects. This thesis work has demonstrated a higher utilization of oral arginine for NO synthesis in subjects with cardiometabolic risk factors, and a higher utilization with the SR form, particularly in these subjects at risk. As to the second study, it showed that the SRarginine supplementation effects largely varied with baseline fasting arginine concentration of subjects with cardiometabolic risk factors. In subjects with a relatively lower baseline arginine concentration, SR-arginine attenuated the decrease in postprandial endothelial function and led to a significantly higher endothelial function at the end of the postprandial period.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01755149
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Submitted on : Friday, March 30, 2018 - 2:27:07 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01755149, version 1

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Ambre Deveaux. Supplémentation nutritionnelle en arginine chez des sujets sains présentant des facteurs de risque liés au syndrome métabolique : métabolisme de l'arginine alimentaire et impact sur la fonction endothéliale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLA001⟩. ⟨tel-01755149⟩

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