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Effets cumulatifs et compétitifs des éléments chimiques sur l’altération des verres nucléaires

Abstract : This work takes place in the context of the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses under repository conditions. The main objective is to identify, understand and compare the effects of some chemical elements present in the glass composition and/or in the repository media (Zn, Mg, Ni, Co, Fe, Ca, Gd, Ce, K, Cs, Cr and Ag) on the processes involved in glass alteration by water. The cumulative or competitive nature of the effects of these chemical elements was determined. To reach this goal, a 6 oxides simple glass (ISG) has been altered for more than 500 days in a solution containing one or more of the chemical elements of interest.The results indicated that Zn, Mg, Ni, Co and Fe elements increase glass alteration forming secondary phases with the same structure and stoichiometry (trioctahedral smectites). To form, these silicates consume chemical elements (Si, Al) from the environment and induce a pH decrease until a limiting value of pH. Beyond this pH the precipitation of secondary phases is inhibited and these chemical elements can be integrated into the gel, replacing Ca whose solubility increases at lower pH. As long as they form secondary phases, the effects of these elements are cumulative. Rare earths Gd and Ce also increase glass alteration forming secondary phases but their effects are lower as they contain less silicon. These elements are not integrated in the gel. Chromium increases glass alteration by precipitating with Ca and leading to a less protective gel, depleted in Ca. Silver precipitates as AgCl and has no effect on the alteration of the glass.The chemical elements K, Cs and Ca limit glass alteration by integrating into the gel and slowing down the transport phenomena therein. This integration is competitive: the order of integration (quantity and effectiveness glass alteration limitation) is the following Ca >> Cs > K. Thus, the increase of glass alteration may be proportional to the quantity of elements promoting the precipitation of secondary phases, but the pH decrease limits the process. The effects of the elements that reduce glass alteration by incorporating into the gel, are quantitatively limited by the gel composition and its ability to incorporate them, and qualitatively by the nature of the elements.
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Hélène Arena. Effets cumulatifs et compétitifs des éléments chimiques sur l’altération des verres nucléaires. Matériaux. Université Montpellier, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTT190⟩. ⟨tel-01754872⟩

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