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Contribution méthodologique à l’accompagnement au changement organisationnel induit par l’implication des occupants dans un projet d’Habitat Participatif

Abstract : The implementation of a method for the conduct of cohousing operations is the subject of this study. Our partner is social housing company that is a property developer and a rental manager. One of his objectives is to develop a new offer: cohousing. The objective is to involve the future occupants in the design process of their residence in order to guarantee their satisfaction.This approach has many similarities with participatory design methods that have demonstrated their benefits for the quality of the manufactured products as well as for the user satisfaction. In the French Housing sector, cohousing operations are uncommon and generally carried out by residents who want to avoid property developers.Several arguments explain this gap between the two sectors. Unlike manufactured products, the constructed object is unique. The design of a building must adapt to local specificities and its production environment, the construction site, is under uncertainty.Moreover, on public projects, the law orders the separation between owners, designers and builders. This constitutes an obstacle to the sharing of good practices and strengthen coordination mechanisms based on informal communication. Construction operations are therefore considered non-repeatable. A second argument that explains the low number of cohousing projects lies in the cultural specificities of the sector. Occupant satisfaction is rarely measured and the gap in terms of knowledge and communication with professionals is huge. Unlike manufacturing industry, the formalization of a participatory process is in contradiction with the practices of a sector where projects are not repeatable and therefore not very formalized. We then demonstrate the importance of formalizing the participatory process that must be carried out, and then alert the consequences of the involvement of the inhabitants. We are interested in the phenomenon of resistance to organizational change. In our context, the management of organizational change seems to constitute a pertinent answer to this phenomenon.The objective of this doctoral thesis is therefore to define and then test a methodology for Cohousing projects. First, we propose a process modelling by defining the roles of each stakeholder on the different stages of a real estate operation. We explain the level and the topics of participation to obtain the satisfaction of the future occupants. In order to analyze the implementation of our recommendations, we develop a model for the formalization of the cohousing process integrating the using constraints of the professionals. Secondly, we are building a process of organizational change management in order to prevent the difficulties caused by an upheaval in the conventions shared between professionals.Our proposal is tested on two successive cohousing operations. On the basis of participant observation, interviews and questionnaires, we highlight the positive impact of participatory design on satisfaction. In a second step, we compare the accompanying steps with the change implemented and their effects on the two operations. We find that the better the change management is conducted the less the incidents on collaboration or communication issues are significant. Consequently, we confirm the relevance of a cohousing project management methodology that combines the involvement of the inhabitants in a participative design process and the organizational change management.
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Xavier Latortue. Contribution méthodologique à l’accompagnement au changement organisationnel induit par l’implication des occupants dans un projet d’Habitat Participatif. Autre. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0933⟩. ⟨tel-01754838⟩

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